General introductions to digital humanities

A Companion to Digital Humanities. Ed. Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, and John Unsworth. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004:

A Companion to Digital Literary Studies. Ed. Ray Siemens and Susan Schreibman. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008:

Electronic Textual Editing. Ed. Lou Burnard, Katherine O'Brien O'Keefe, and John Unsworth. New York: Modern Language Association, 2006: [preview version]

On textual features

Andersen, Jennifer, and Elizabeth Sauer. Books and Readers in Early Modern England: Material Studies. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania UP, 2002. 42-79.

Barney, Stephen A. Annotation and Its Texts. New York: Oxford UP, 1991.

Baron, Sabrina Alcorn, Eric N. Lindquist, and Eleanor F. Shevlin, ed. Agent of Change: Print Culture Studies After Elizabeth Eisenstein. Amherst, MA: U of Massachusetts P, 2007.

Bray, Joe, Miriam Handley, and Anne C. Henry. Ma(r)king the Text: The Presentation of Meaning on the Literary Page. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2000.

Bringhurst, Robert. The Elements of Typographic Style. 3rd ed. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks, 2005.

Carruthers, Mary J. The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.

---, and Jan M. Ziolkowski, ed. The Medieval Craft of Memory: An
Anthology of Texts and Pictures. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2002.

Chartier, Roger. Forms and Meanings: Texts, Performances, and Audiences from Codex to Computer. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1995.

---. The Order of Books. Trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1992.

Cloud, Random. [Randall McLeod.] "FIAT fLUX." Crisis in Editing: Texts of the English Renaissance. Ed. Randall McLeod. New York: AMS Press, 1994. 61-172 [sic]. [copy in Books 1000 Winter binder in Inforum]

Cloud, Random. [Randall McLeod.] "Information upon Information." TEXT 5 (1991): 241-81. [copy in Books 1000 Winter binder in Inforum]

Cunningham, Richard. "Coincidental Technologies: Moving Parts in Early Books and Printed Hypertext." Digital Studies 0.12 (2009):

Darnton, Robert. "Philosophers Trim the Tree of Knowledge: The Epistemological Strategy of the Encyclopédie." The Great Cat Massacre: And Other Episodes in French Cultural History. New York: Basic Books, 1984. 191-213. [copy in INF 2331 binder in Inforum]

Drucker, Johanna. Figuring the Word: Essays on Books, Writing, and Visual Poetics. New York: Granary, 1998.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth E. The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983.
Ferrell, Lori Anne. "How-To Books, Protestant Kinetics, and the Art of Theology." Huntington Library Quarterly 71.4 (2008): 591-606.

Frasca-Spada, Marina and Nick Jardine, ed. Books and the Sciences in History. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000.

Gaskell, Philip. A New Introduction to Bibliography. Winchester: St. Paul's
Bibliographies; New Castle: Oak Knoll Press, 1974.

Genette, Gerard. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation. Trans. Jane E. Lewin. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

Gondris, Joanna. "'All This Farrago': The Eighteenth-Century Shakespeare Variorum Page as a Critical Structure." Reading Readings: Essays on Shakespeare Editing in the Eighteenth Century. Ed. Joanna Gondris. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1998. 123-39.

Greetham, D.C. Textual Scholarship: An Introduction. New York: Garland, 1994.

Harvey, P.D.A. The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Surveys. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980.

Harpold, Terry. Ex-Foliations: Reading Machines and the Upgrade Path. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2009.

Hauptman, Robert. Documentation: A History and Critique of Attribution, Commentary, Glosses, Marginalia, Notes, Bibliographies, Works-Cited Lists, and Citation Indexing and Analysis. New York: McFarland, 2008.

Hobart, Michael E., and Zachary S. Schiffman. Information Ages: Literacy, Numeracy, and the Computer Revolution. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1998.

Jackson, H.J. Marginalia: Readers Writing in Books. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 2001.

Jardine, Lisa, and Anthony Grafton. "'Studied for Action': How Gabriel Harvey Read His Livy." Past and Present 129 (1990): 30-78.

Johns, Adrian. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1998.

Keefer, Sarah Larrat, and Rolf H. Bremmer, Jr, ed. Signs on the Edge: Space, Text and Margin in Medieval Manuscripts. Paris: Peeters, 2007.

Kendrick, Laura. Animating the Letter: The Figurative Embodiment of Writing from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1999.

Lerer, Seth. "Errata: Print, Politics, and Poetry in Early Modern England." Reading, Society, and Politics in Early Modern England. Ed. Kevin Sharpe and Steven N. Zwicker. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. 41-71.

Marcus, Leah S. Unediting the Renaissance: Shakespeare, Marlowe, Milton. London: Routledge, 1996.

McGann, Jerome J. The Textual Condition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1991.

McKenzie, D.F. Bibliography and the Sociology of Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999.

---. "Typography and Meaning: The Case of William Congreve." Making Meaning: "Printers of the Mind" and Other Essays. Ed. Peter D. McDonald and Michael F. Suarez, S.J. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002. 198–236.

McKitterick, David. Print, Manuscript and the Search for Order, 1450-1830. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003.
"Mise-en-Page, Illustration, Expressive Form." [cluster of short articles by Maureen Bell, Randall Anderson, Peter Campbell, Nicholas Barker, Harold Love, and T.A. Birrell] The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain. Vol. 4: 1557-1695. Ed. John Barnard and D.F. McKenzie. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 632-61.

Morris, William. "Printing" and "The Ideal Book." The Ideal Book: Essays and Lectures on the Arts of the Book. Ed. William Peterson. Berkeley, CA: U of California P, 1982. 59-66, 67-73. [copy in INF 2331 binder in Inforum]

Moss, Ann. Printed Commonplace-Books and the Structuring of Renaissance Thought. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1996.

Parkes, M.B. Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993.

Pearson, David. Books as History: The Importance of Books Beyond Their Texts. London: British Library; Oak Knoll P, 2008.

Rouse, Richard H. "Wax Tablets." Language & Communication 9.2-3 (1989): 175-191. []

Rhodes, Neil, and Jonathan Sawday, ed. The Renaissance Computer: Knowledge Technology in the First Age of Print. London: Routledge, 2000.

Sherman, William H. Used Books: Marking Readers in Renaissance England. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2008.
Slights, William W.E. Managing Readers: Printed Marginalia in English Renaissance Books. Ann Arbor, MI: U of Michigan P, 2001.

Stallybrass, Peter. "Books and Scrolls: Navigating the Bible." Books and Readers in Early Modern England: Material Studies. Ed. Jennifer Andersen and Elizabeth Sauer. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania UP, 2002. 42-79. [copy in Books 1000 Winter binder in Inforum]

Stallybrass, Peter, Roger Chartier, J. Franklin Mowery, and Heather Wolfe. "Hamlet's Tables and the Technologies of Writing in Renaissance England." Shakespeare Quarterly 55.4 (2004): 379-419. []

Stoicheff, Peter, and Andrew Taylor, ed. The Future of the Page. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 2004.

Syme, Holger S. "The Look of Speech." Textual Cultures 2.2 (2007): 34-60.

Thornton, Dora. The Scholar in His Study: Ownership and Experience in Renaissance Italy. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1997.

Tribble, Evelyn B. Margins and Marginality: The Printed Page in Early Modern England. Charlottesville, NC: UP of Virginia, 1993.

Tschichold, Jan. The Form of the Book: Essays on the Morality of Good Design. Trans. Hajo Hadeler. Ed. Robert Bringhurst. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks, 1991.

Tufte, Edward. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 2005. [note: Tufte has several books, most of which are worth a look for the purposes of this course; this one contains a useful discussion of a frontispiece of an early modern book (Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy), and a copy is on reserve in the Inforum]

Wendorf, Richard. "Abandoning the Capital in Eighteenth-Century London." Reading, Society, and Politics in Early Modern England. Ed. Kevin Sharpe and Steven N. Zwicker. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. 72-98.

On digitization, modelling, visualization, etc.

Bauman, Syd, and Terry Catapano. "TEI and the Encoding of the Physical Structure of Books." Computers and the Humanities 33 (1999): 113-27. []

Deegan, Marilyn, and Kathryn Sutherland, ed. Text Editing, Print, and the Digital World. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009. [article collection]

Deegan, Marilyn, and Kathryn Sutherland. Transferred Illusions: Digital Technology and the Forms of Print. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2009.

Donaldson, Peter S. "Digital Archive as Expanded Text: Shakespeare and Electronic Textuality." Electronic Text: Investigations in Method and Theory. Ed. Kathryn Sutherland. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1997. 173-97.

Duguid, Paul. "Material Matters: The Past and Futurology of the Book." The Future of the Book. Ed. Geoffrey Nunberg. Berkeley, CA: U of California P, 1996. 63-101. [copy in INF 2331 binder in Inforum]

Flanders, Julia. "Data and Wisdom: Electronic Editing and the Quantification of Knowledge." Literary and Linguistic Computing 24.1 (2009): 53-125. []

Galey, Alan. "Signal to Noise: Designing a Digital Edition of The Taming of a Shrew (1594)." Shakespeare and Information Technology, ed. Patrick Finn. Special issue of College Literature 36.1 (2009): <>

Guédon, Jean-Claude. "Digitizing and the Meaning of Knowledge." Academic Matters (October/November 2008): <>.

Jessop, Martyn. "Digital Visualization as a Scholarly Activity." Literary and Linguistic Computing 23.3 (2008): 281-293. []

Kirschenbaum, Matthew G. "Hello Worlds: Why Humanities Students Should Learn to Program." The Chronicle of Higher Education 55.20 (2009): B10-B12. <>

Kirschenbaum, Matthew G. "'So the Colors Cover the Wires': Interface, Aesthetics, and Usability." A Companion to Digital Humanities. Ed. Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, and John Unsworth. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004. [print copy on reserve in Inforum; digital copy available at]

---, ed. "Image-Based Humanities Computing." Spec. issue of Computers and the Humanities 36.1 (2002). <>.

---. Mechanisms: New Media and the Forensic Imagination. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008.

Levy, David M. Scrolling Forward: Making Sense of Documents in the Digital Age. New York: Arcade, 2001.

McCarty, Willard. Humanities Computing. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

McGann, Jerome. "Visible and Invisible Books: Hermetic Images in n-Dimensional Space." Literary and Linguistic Computing 17.1 (2002): 61-75. []

Ramsay, Stephen. "In Praise of Pattern." TEXT Technology 14.2 (2005): 177-90. []

Renear, Allen. "Out of Praxis: Three (Meta)Theories of Textuality." Sutherland, Kathryn, ed. Electronic Text: Investigations in Method and Theory. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997. 107-26. [copy in INF 2331 binder in Inforum; book on reserve in Inforum: 070.5797 E38F]

Rockwell, Geoffrey (and co-authors). Pre-prints of various articles in his section on "text analysis and visualization": [Note: cite from published version wherever possible; publication information is given at the top of each pre-print article.]

Siemens, R.G. "Shakespearean Apparatus? Explicit Textual Structures and the Implicit Navigation of Accumulated Knowledge." TEXT 14 (2002): 209-240.

Terras, Melissa. Digital Images for the Information Professional. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2008.

Unsworth, John. "Scholarly Primitives: What Methods Do Humanities Researchers Have in Common, and How Might Our Tools Reflect This?".

Vandendorpe, Christian. From Papyrus to Hypertext: Toward the Universal Digital Library. Trans. Phyllis Aronoff and Howard Scott. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1999. [see esp. the chapter "Toward the Tabular Text"]

Tutorials and references

A Gentle Introduction to XML:

There are many XML tutorials on the Web, but this one was written specifically for those with a humanities-based understanding of texts. The "Gentle Introduction" is part of the TEI Guidelines, below.

The Text Encoding Initiative's P5 Guidelines:

These guidelines define tags and other encoding techniques used by many projects to mark up a wide range of texts, with an emphasis on the kinds of texts studied in the humanities (i.e. literary texts and historical documents). Students in the archives path will notice that TEI is similar in spirit to the Encoded Archival Description guidelines (, but they differ in important respects (and we will not be using EAD in this class).

I recommend bookmarking the Guidelines' index of tag names, and using it as your entry point to the site:

The TEI By Example project:

This is an alternative to the TEI's "Gentle Introduction to XML," which combines lots of examples with corresponding exercises, and links to some useful tools. If you're finding the TEI introduction and guidelines hard going, try this site.
XML and XHTML special character references:

The Programming Historian:

An online book which introduces programming concepts, tools, and techniques, geared to readers with humanities backgrounds. In that respect, The Programming Historian is to programming what the TEI "Gentle Introduction" is to XML.

Library resources and online collections

Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library:

The University's (and Canada's) biggest rare book library, conveniently located on the other side of Robarts library. The link above will take you to a search form specifically for the Fisher's collections. (Note: the old catalogue interface, linked from the new interface, may return more accurate results.) The Fisher's online collections are also available here.

One of the best ways of finding interesting books held by the Fisher is to look at the many exhibition catalogues they've published over the years (most, if not all, with Coach House Press, a very cool small press just across the street from the Information faculty). These catalogues contain descriptions of interesting books, usually a bit about their history, and, most usefully for us, pictures. The Inforum has a nearly complete collection of Fisher exhibition catalogues (new as of December) and you can find them on a cart near the main desk -- just ask if it's not obvious. A particularly good overview of the Fisher's collection may be found in the catalogue Book History and Print Culture: An Exhibition Celebrating the Collaborative Program at the University of Toronto, a copy of which is held by the Inforum. Some catalogues deal with specific topics (ex: anatomy, Charles Darwin, censorship), which may be of use in your assignments. If you cannot locate a catalogue, let me know and I'll check my own collection.

Center for Renaissance and Reformation Studies (CRRS) Library:

Another excellent rare book library, located in the Pratt Library on the other side of campus. Their website also includes links to online collections and research aids.

Early English Books Online (EEBO):

Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO):

Folger Shakespeare Library (link to digital image collection):


General resources

The tools section of the TEI wiki:

Image markup tools

UVic Image Markup Tool:

Visualization examples and tools

Many Eyes:
Many Eyes Visualization: Shakespeare's Favorite Words:
We Feel Fine: 
The Versioning Machine: