Spring 2007: Thursdays, 12-2 PM at Vic #211


Instructor: Nikolai Krementsov, e-mail: <n.krementsov@utoronto.ca>


Office hours: Tuesdays 2-4 PM, at Victoria College, # 312.


This course is a survey of selected topics in the history of so-called “Western” medicine from Antiquity to the present. It will explore the interplay of medical ideas, institutions, and practices with contemporary politics, ideology, science, economics, law, technology, and society writ large. 



1. To become familiar with a sample of recent and classic scholarship on the history of medicine

2. To increase the ability to think critically about basic assumptions and conceptual frameworks in analyzing medical issues, past and present

3. To develop the ability to view contemporary medical problems in historical perspective

4. To develop skills in oral presentations and debate and in writing about historical issues



January 11.       1. Introduction

January 18.       2. Antiquity  

January 25.       3. Middle Ages and Renaissance

February 1.      4. The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

February 8.      5. The “Hospital Revolution”

February 15.    6. The “Laboratory Revolution”


February 19-24            Reading Week


March 1.          7. The “Germ Revolution”

March 8.          8. Medicine and Public Health

March 15.        9. Medicine and War

March 22.        10. Medicine and Technology

March 29.        11. Medicine, Gendered

April 5.             12. Medicine as a Business

April 12.           13. The Doctor and the Patient




The course is arranged into 13 two-hour seminars. Each seminar will be in two sections with a 10-15 minute break in between, and as many discussions with the instructor as students need during the office hours. All students are expected to have read the assigned readings and to participate actively in class discussion, including days when written assignments are due. Each week one student will be responsible for stimulating class discussion. Presenters will be given fifteen minutes to present the day’s topic and to raise discussion questions, but should not simply summarize the readings. The presenters should also bring copies of a one-page list of discussion points for the members of the class. Discussion points may include criticisms, disagreements, support, analysis of sources, and queries of the readings. Each participant should bring to the class three questions (printed) for the discussion.


There will be three written assignments in the course:

Students will write two book reviews (500-800 words each): the first book review must be handed in by February 8; the second review by March 8.

Students will also write a 15-20 page (~6,000 words) research paper on a subject in the history of medicine. Students must discuss their paper topics with the instructor by February 15. The first draft of the paper (including a well-developed bibliography of primary and secondary sources) is due at the beginning of class on March 15. The final draft of the paper is due at the beginning of class on April 12.


These assignments will be discussed in greater detail during the course of the semester.


WRITING IS AN ESSENTIAL SKILL in this course and I highly recommend that you buy and carefully study a small, but very useful book, Elements of Style by W. Strunk, Jr and E. B. White (preferably, fourth edition).

UofT also offers help with perfecting your writing skills and I urge you to use it:

Advice on Academic Writing: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/advise.html;

Plagiarism: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/plagsep.html;

Critical Reading leads to Critical Thinking: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/critrdg.html

Writing An Academic Book Review: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/bkrev.html

For further suggestions on writing a book review see George Sarton, “Notes on the Reviewing Learned Books,” Isis, 1950, vol. 41, pp. 149-158 (available on-line through UofT Libraries)


The grading for the course will be distributed as follows:


Class participation                                30%

Book reviews                                       15% each

Essay (first draft)                                  15 %

Essay (final draft)                                  25%


The lateness penalty for all assignments is 1% of the assignment’s mark a day!!!



Readings are intended to give you material for thought and discussion. They are divided into “required,” “background,” and “recommended.” The first you must read for a corresponding week, the last you can read at your leisure, if you want to know more on the topic. The background reading is intended to provide you with a general context for various subjects addressed in “required reading” and class discussions. On-line readings must be accessed (downloaded and/or printed out) at least two weeks prior the class for which they are assigned. No excuses such as “server was down” or “my computer crashed” will be accepted!!!

As basic texts for the background reading we will use:

Roy Porter, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to Present (London: Haprper Collins Publishers, 1997);

Jacalyn Duffin, History of Medicine, A Scandalously Short Introduction (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999).

Paperback editions of both are available at amazon.ca at discount prices and free shipping when you order both of them at the same time.



There are many resources for the history of medicine available on the WWW. Below are several useful links for additional reading and research.

US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE: http://www.nlm.nih.gov


HISTORY OF HEALTH SCIENCES: http://mla-hhss.org/histlink.htm

THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA: http://www.collphyphil.org/HMDLSubweb/indexhmdl.htm_1.htm

WELLCOME TRUST: http://medhist.ac.uk/

FREE MEDICAL JOURNALS ON LINE: http://www.freemedicaljournals.com/

HISTORY OF BIOMEDICINE, the Karolinska Institute: http:/www.mic.ki.se/history


Several leading journals in the history of medicine are available on-line at the UofT libraries and via Utordial:

Bulletin of the History of Medicine

Journal of the History of Medicine and the Allied Sciences

Medical History

Medicine and Literature

Social History of Medicine




Porter, Introduction; Duffin, Introduction



Josephine Tey, The Daughter of Time (any edition)



Porter, Chapters 2 and 3


Owsei Temkin,”Greek Medicine as Science and Craft,” in idem, The Double Face of Janus (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977), pp. 137-153


Owsei Temkin, “History of Hippocratism in Late Antiquity: The Third Century and the Latin West,” ibid, pp. 187-177.


Owsei Temkin,  “Medical ethics and honoraria in late Antiquity,” in Rosenberg C. E. , ed., Healing and history; essays for George Rosen (New York: Science History Publications, 1979), pp. 6-26


Vivian Nutton, “From Galen to Alexander, aspects of medicine and medical practice in late antiquity,” in J. Scarborough, ed., Symposium on Byzantine Medicine (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1985), pp. 1-14.



Owsei Temkin, Galenism: Rise and Decline of a Medical Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1973)


Vivian Nutton, Continuity or rediscovery? The city physician in classical antiquity and mediaeval Italy (Wolfenbüttel: Herzog August Bibliothek, 1981)


Mirko Grmek, ed., Western medical thought from antiquity to the Middle Ages, translated by Antony Shugaar (Cambridge, Mass : Harvard University Press, 1998)


“Greek medicine”: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/greek/

This site offers some useful information and a glossary of Classic Greek medicine



Porter, Chapters 4, 5, and 8


Vivian Nutton, “Medicine in the Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages,” in Lawrence I. Conrad et al., The Western Medical Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995), pp. 71-88


Lawrence I. Conrad, “The Arab-Islamic Medical Tradition,” in Lawrence I. Conrad et al., The Western Medical Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995), pp. 93-113


Nancy G. Siraisi, “Vesalius and the reading of Galen's teleology,” Renaissance Quarterly, 1997, vol. 50, pp. 1-37, on-line


Katharine Park, “Medicine and Society in Medieval Europe, 500-1500,” in Andrew Wear, ed., Medicine in Society (Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 59-91


Vivian Nutton, “The Reception of Fracastro’s Theory of Contagion: The Seed that Fell among Thorns?” Osiris, 2nd ser., 1990, vol. 6, pp. 198-234, on-line



Nancy G. Siraisi, Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine: An Introduction to Knowledge and Practice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990)


Manfred Ullmann, Islamic Medicine (Edinburgh University Press, 1978)


A. Wear, R. K. French, and I. M. Lonie, eds., The Medical Renaissance of the Sixteenth Century (Cambridge University Press, 1985)




Porter, Chapters 9 and 10


Steven Shapin, “Descartes the doctor: rationalism and its therapies,” British Journal of the History of Science, 2000, 33, pp. 131-154, on-line.


H. J. Cook, “The new philosophy and medicine in seventeenth-century England,” in D. C. Lindberg and R. S. Westman, eds., Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 397-436.


Bruce T. Moran, “A survey of chemical medicine in the 17th century: spanning court, classroom, and cultures,” Pharmacy in history, 1996, 38, no. 3, pp. 121-133


Anita Guerrini, “Isaak Newton, George Cheyne and the Principia Medicinae,” in Roger French and Andrew Wear, eds., The Medical Revolution of the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 222-245


Norman Gevitz, “ ‘The Devil Hath Laughed at the Physicians’: Witchcraft and Medical Practice in Seventeenth-Century New England,” Journal of the History of Medicine, 2000, vol. 55, pp. 5-36, on-line


Angie Smith, “Weighed in the Balance? The Corporation of Apothecaries in Bordeaux, 1690-1790,” Social History of Medicine, 2003, vol. 16, pp. 17-37, on-line


Guenter B. Risse, “Medicine in the age of Enlightenment,” in Andrew Wear, ed., Medicine in Society (Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 149-197



R. Boyle, Memoirs for the Natural History of Humane Blood (1684). Preface



Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654). The English physitian: or an astrologo-physical discourse of the vulgar herbs of this nation (London: Peter Cole, 1652). http://www.med.yale.edu/library/historical/culpeper/culpeper.htm


John Westover (1643-1706). The journal of John Westover, surgeon, 1686-1703 / edited by William G. Hall (1992). http://www.tutton.org/content/Westover_journal.pdf


Roger French and Andrew Wear, eds., The Medical Revolution of the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)


Ole P. Grell and Andrew Cunningham, eds., Religio medici: medicine and religion in seventeenth-century England (Aldershot: Scholar Press, 1996).


Alen G. Debus, “Chemists, Physicians, and the Changing Perspective on the Scientific Revolution,” Isis, 1998, vol. 89, pp. 66-81, on-line


Andreas-Holger Maehle, Drugs on trial: experimental pharmacology and therapeutic innovation in the eighteenth century (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999)


Roy Porter, ed., Medicine in the Enlightenment (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1995)


Andrew Cunningham and Roger French, eds., The medical enlightenment of the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)


Thomas H. Broman, The transformation of German academic medicine, 1750-1820  (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)



5. THE “HOSPITAL REVOLUTION”. The first book review must be handed in!!!

Porter, Chapter 12


Owsei Temkin, “The role of surgery in the rise of modern medical thought,” BHM, 1951, vol. 25, pp. 248-259; on-line.


Ivan Waddington, “The role of the Hospital in the Development of Modern Medicine: A Sociological Analysis,” Sociology, 1973, vol. 7, pp. 211-224.


I. S. L. Loudon, “The Origins and Growth of the Dispensary Movement in England,” BHM, 1981, vol. 55, pp. 322-342; on-line.


John C. O'Neal, “Auenbrugger, Corvisart, and the Perception of Disease,” Eighteenth-Century Studies, 1998, 31:4, pp. 473-489, on-line.


Dora B. Weiner and Michael J. Souter, “The City of Paris and the Rise of Clinical Medicine,” Osiris, 2003, vol. 18, pp. 23-42, on-line.


Charles Rosenberg, “Introduction,” in The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America’s Hospital System (New York: Basic Books, 1987), pp. 3-11.



John Frangos, From housing the poor to healing the sick: the changing institution of Paris hospitals under the old regime and revolution (Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1997)


Michel Foucault, The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception (New York: Pantheon, 1973)


Caroline Hannaway and Ann La Berge, eds., Constructing Paris medicine (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998)


Lindsay Granshaw, “The Rise of Modern Hospital in Britain,” in Andrew Wear, ed., Medicine in Society (Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 197-218.


Steven Cherry, Medical services and the hospitals in Britain, 1860-1939 (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996)


Charles Rosenberg, The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America’s Hospital System (New York: Basic Books, 1987)




Porter, Chapter 11; Duffin, Chapter 3 and 4


Russel Maulitz, “Rudolf Virchow, Julius Cohnheim and the Program of Pathology,” BHM, 1978, vol. 52, pp. 162-182; on-line.


Alan G. Wasserstein, “Death and the internal milieu: Claude Bernard and the origins of experimental medicine,” Perspectives in biology and medicine, 1996, 39, no. 3 pp. 313-326.


Timothy Lenoir, “Laboratories, Medicine and Public Life in Germany, 1830-1949,” in Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, eds. The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 14-71


L. S. Jacyna, “A Host of Experienced Microscopists”: The Establishment of Histology in Nineteenth-Century Edinburgh,” BHM, 2001, vol. 75, pp. 225 –253, on-line


Johannes Buttner, “Impacts of laboratory methodology on medical thinking in the 19th century,” Medical sciences history, 17 (2001), p. 19-25.


Bruno Latour, “The Costly Ghastly Kitchen,” in Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, eds., The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 295-303



Claude Bernard, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (New York: Dover Publications, 1957)


Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, eds. The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992)


W. F. Bynum, Science and the practice of medicine in the nineteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)


FEBRUARY 19-24.                           READING WEEK.



Porter, Chapter 14


Erwin Ackerknecht, “Anti-Contagionism between 1821 and 1867,” BHM, 1948, vol. 22, pp. 562-593; on-line.


Owsei Temkin, “An Historical Analysis of the Concept of Infection” in idem, Double Face of Janus, pp. 465-471.


Paul Weindling, “Scientific elites and laboratory organization in fin de siècle Paris and Berlin: the Pasteur Institute and Robert Koch’s Institute for Infectious Disease compared,” in Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, eds., The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 170-188


J. Andrew Mendelson, “The Microscopist of Modern Life,” Osiris, 2003, vol. 18, pp. 150-170, on-line.


P. P. Gossel, “Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology,” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 2000, vol. 22, pp. 81-100


Paul Weindling, “From medical research to clinical practice: serum therapy for diphtheria in the 1890s,” John V. Pickstone, ed., Medical innovations in historical perspective (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992), pp. 72-83.


Milton Wainwright, “Fleming’s Unfinished,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 2002, vol. 45, pp. 529–38, on-line.



Paul de Kruif, Microbe Hunters (any edition)


Lady Mary Wrotley Montagu (1716-1718), “Inoculation Against Smallpox,” from S. Rappoport and H. Wright, eds., Great Adventures in Medicine (New York: The Dial Press, 1952), pp. 165-166


Modern History Sourcebook:
Edward Jenner (1749-1823): Three Original Publications On Vaccination Against Smallpox, 1798: http://www.fordham.edu/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?236052,11863

Joseph Lister (1827-1912): Antiseptic Principle Of The Practice Of Surgery, 1867


Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Germ Theory and Its Applications to Medicine and Surgery, 1878: http://www.fordham.edu/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?236052,11989


Louis Pasteur (1822-1894): Extension Of The Germ Theory, 1880



Jerry L. Gaw, "A time to heal": the diffusion of Listerism in Victorian Britain (Philadelphia : American Philosophical Society, 1999). xii, 173 p. (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, v. 89)


Milton Wainwright, Miracle Cure: The Story of Penicillin and the Golden Age of Antibiotics (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990)


John Parascondola, “The Introduction of Antibiotics into Therapeutics,” in J. W. Levitt and R. L. Numbers, eds., Sickness and Health in America (The University of Wisconsin Press, 1997), pp.102-112.


8. MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH. The second book review is due!!!


Porter, Chapter 13


Krista Maglen, “The First Line of Defense: British Quarantine and the Port Sanitary Authorities in the Nineteen Century,” Social History of Medicine, 2002, vol. 15, pp. 413-428, on-line.


John Eyler, “Mortality Statistics and Victorian Health Policy: Program and Criticism,” BHM, 1976, vol. 50, pp. 335-355; on-line.


Christopher Hamlin, “Edwin Chadwick, ‘Mutton Medicine,’ and the Fever Question,” BHM, 1996, 70 (2), pp. 233-265, on-line.


Ann F. La Berge, “The Early 19th century French Public Health Movement: The Disciplinary Development and Institutionalization of Hygiene Publique,” BHM, 1984, vol. 58, pp. 363-379; on-line.


Elisabeth Fee and Dorothy Porter, “Public Health, preventive medicine and professionalization: England and America in the nineteenth century,” in Andrew Wear, ed., Medicine in Society (Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 249-276


Nancy Tomes, “The Private Side of Public Health: Sanitary Science, Domestic Hygiene, and the Germ Theory, 1870-1900,” in J. W. Leavitt and R. L. Numbers, eds., Sickness and Health in America (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987), 3d ed., pp. 506-528.


Judith W. Leavitt, “ ‘Typhoid Mary’ Strikes Back: Bacteriological Theory and Practice in Early 20th Century Public Health,” in J. W. Leavitt and R. L. Numbers, eds., Sickness and Health in America (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987), 3d ed., pp. 555-572



Johan Peter Frank, “The civil administrator, most successful physician,” (1784), translated by Jean Captain Sabine, BHM, 1944, vol. 16, pp. 289-318; on-line.


Max von Pettenkofer, The Value of Health to A City: Two Popular Lectures.  Translated with an introduction by Henry E. Sigerist (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1941), pp. 15-52


George Rosen, From Medical Police to Social Medicine (New York: Science History Publications, 1974)


Richard J. Evans, Death in Hamburg: Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830-1910 (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1987)






The first draft of the research paper (including a bibliography) is due!!!


Porter, Chapter 15


Roger Cooter and Steve Sturdy, “Of War, Medicine and Modernity,” in Roger Cooter, Mark Harrison, and Steve Sturdy, eds., War, Medicine and Modernity (Sutton Publishing, 1998), pp. 1-22.


Anne Hardy, “Straight Back to Barbarism”: Antityphoid Inoculation and the Great War, 1914,” BHM, 2000, vol. 74, pp. 265–290, on-line.


Derek S. Linton, “Was Typhoid Inoculation Safe and Effective during World War I? Debates within German Military Medicine,” Journal of the History of Medicine, 2000, vol. 55, pp. 101-133, on-line.


Kim Pelis, “Taking Credit: The Canadian Army Medical Corps and the British Conversion to Blood Transfusion in WWI,” Journal of the History of Medicine, 2001, vol. 56, pp. 238-277, on-line.


Roger Cooter, “Of War and Epidemics: Unnatural Couplings, Problematic Conceptions,” Social History of Medicine, 2003, vol. 16, pp. 283-302, on-line.



Martin R. Howard, Wellington's doctors: the British Army Medical Services in the Napoleonic wars (Staplehurst: Spellmount, 2002)


John Shepherd, The Crimean Doctors (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1991), vol 1-2


George Worthington Adams, Doctors in Blue: The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War (Baton Rouge; London: Louisiana State University Press, 1996)


H. H. Cunningham, Doctors in Gray: The Confederate Medical Services (Baton Rouge, London: Louisiana State University Press, 1986)


Roger Cooter, Mark Harrison, and Steve Sturdy, eds., War, medicine and modernity (Stroud: Sutton, 1998)


Nikolai Krementsov, The Cure: A Story of Cancer and Politics from the Annals of the Cold War (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002)



Duffin, Chapter 9


Stanley J. Reiser, Medicine and the reign of technology (Cambridge University Press, 1978), ch. 4, “The Microscope and the revelation of a cellular universe,” pp. 69-90


Christopher Lawrence, “Incommunicable Knowledge: Science, Technology and the Clinical Art in Britain, 1850-1914,” Journal of Contemporary History, 1985, vol. 20, pp. 503-520, on-line.


Christiane Sinding, “Making the Unit of Insulin: Standards, Clinical Work, and Industry, 1920–1925,” BHM, 2002, vol. 76, pp. 231 –270, on-line.


Christopher W. Crenner, “Introduction of the blood pressure cuff into U.S. medical practice: technology and skilled practice,” Annals of internal medicine, 1998, 128, no. 6, pp. 488-493, on-line.


Peter Neushul, “Science, government, and the mass production of penicillin,” Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, 1993, 48, pp. 371-395; on-line.


Cynthia R. Daniels and Janet Golden, “Procreative Compounds: Popular Eugenics, Artificial Insemination and the Rise of the American Sperm Banking Industry,” Journal of Social History, 2004, 38 (1), pp. 5-27, on-line.



Stanley J. Reiser, Medicine and the Reign of Technology (Cambridge University Press, 1978)


Joel D. Howell, Technology in the hospital: Transforming patient care in the early 20th century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1995).


Joseph Bronzino, Vincent Smith, and Maurice Wade, Medical Technology and Society: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990)


Hamilton Cravens, Alan I. Marcus, and David M. Katzman, eds., Technical Knowledge in American Culture: Science, Technology, And Medicine since the Early 1800s (Tuscaloosa; London: University of Alabama Press, 1996)


Kirk Jeffrey, Machines in Our Hearts: The Cardiac Pacemaker, the Implantable Defibrillator, and American Health Care (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2001)



Duffin, Chapter 11 and 13


Carol Rawcliffe, “Women and Medicine: Conflicting Attitudes,” in idem, Medicine and Society in Later Medieval England (Sutton, 1995), pp. 170-193


Joan J. Brumberg, “Chlorotic Girls, 1870-1920:  A Historical Perspective on Female Adolescence,” in J. W. Levitt, ed., Women and Health in America (The University of Winsconsin Press, 1984), pp. 186-195.


Beth Bailey, “Prescribing the Pill: Politics, Culture, and Sexual Revolution in America’s Heartland,” Journal of Social History, 1997, vol. 30, pp. 827-856; on-line.


Rona Achilles, “Desperately Seeking Babies: New Technologies of Hope and Despair,” in K. Arnup et al., eds., Delivering Motherhood: Maternal Ideologies and Practices in the 19th and 20th Centuries (London: Routledge, 1990), pp. 284-312


Peter Neushul, “Marie C. Stopes and the Popularization of the Birth Control Technology,” Technology and Culture, 1998, 39, pp. 245-272, on-line.


Susan Reverby, “The Search for the Hospital Yardstick: Nursing and the Rationalization of Hospital Work,” in J. W. Levitt and R. L. Numbers, eds., Sickness and Health in America (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), pp. 206-216



Mary R. Walsh, ‘Doctors Wanted: No Women need to apply’: Sexual Barriers in the Medical Profession (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977)


Charlotte G. Borst, Catching Babies: The Professionalization of Childbirth, 1870-1920 (Cambridge University Press, 1995)


Lara V. Marks, Sexual Chemistry. A History of Contraceptive Pill (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001)




Porter, Chapter 20


Samuel H. Adams (1905),  “Peruna and the Bracers,” from S. Rappoport and H. Wright, eds., Great Adventures in Medicine (New York: The Dial Press, 1952), pp.480-489


Ronald L. Numbers, “The Third Party: Health Insurance in America,” in M. J. Vogel and Ch. Rosenberg, eds., The Therapeutic Revolution (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979), pp. 177-200


Thomas Goebel, “American medicine and the ‘organizational synthesis’: Chicago physicians and the business of medicine, 1900-1920,” BHM, 1994, 68, pp. 639-663; on-line.


Takahiro Ueyama, “Capital, profession and medical technology: the electro-therapeutic institutes and the Royal College of Physicians, 1888-1922,” Medical history, 1997, 41, pp. 150-181; on-line.


Timothy Alborn, “Insurance against Germ Theory: Commerce and Conservatism in Late-Victorian Medicine,” BHM, 2001, vol. 75, pp. 406–445, on-line.


Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine (Basic Books, 1982), Book II, Ch. 5, “The Coming of the Corporation,” pp. 420-449.


Wai Chen, “The Laboratory as Business: Sir Arthur Wright’s vaccine programme and the construction of penicillin,” in Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, eds., The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 245-294.



Arthur Daemmrich, “A Tale of Two Experts: Thalidomide and Political Engagement in the United States and West Germany,” Social History of Medicine, 2002, vol. 15, pp. 137-158, on-line.




This site offers a wealth of information on advertising industry and medicine


Charles C. Mann and Mark L. Plummer, The Aspirin Wars: Money, Medicine and 100 Years of Rampant Competition (New York: Knopf, 1991)

J. Liebenau, G. J. Higby, and E. C. Stroud, eds., Pill Peddlers (Madison: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, 1990)


Jones, Edgar. The Business of Medicine: The Extraordinary History of Glaxo, a Baby Food Producer, Which Became One of the World's Most Successful Pharmaceutical Companies (London: Profile, 2001)


13. THE DOCTOR AND THE PATIENT. The research paper is due!!!


Porter, Chapter 21


“THE OATH” in Hippocrates, Works (translated by Francis Adams)



E. D. Philips, “Doctor and Patient in Classical Greece,” Greece & Rome, 1953, vol. 22, pp. 70-81, on-line.


Edward Shorter, Bedside Manners: The Troubled History of Doctors and Patients (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985); Ch. 4, “The rise of the modern doctor,” pp. 75-106; Ch. 5, “The making of the modern patient,” pp. 106-139.


Paul Weindling, “The Origins of Informed Consent: The International Scientific Commission on Medical War Crimes, and the Nuremberg Code,” BHM, 2001, 75, pp. 37–71, on-line.


G. Annas, “A National Bill of Patient’s Rights,” New England Journal of Medicine, 1998, vol. 338 (10), pp. 695-699; on-line.


History of US Patients' Bill of Rights passage through Congress and Senate



Paul Starr, “Health and the right to privacy,” American Journal of Law and Medicine; 1999; vol. 25, pp. 193-201, on-line.


Gary S. Belkin, “Brain Death and the Historical Understanding of Bioethics,” Journal of the History of Medicine, 2003, vol. 58, pp. 325-361, on-line.



T. Percival, Medical Jurisprudence; or, A Code of Ethics and Institutes Adapted to the Professions of Physic and Surgery (1794). http://www.collphyphil.org/HMDLSubweb/Pages/P/PercivalT/medjurPgAccess.htm


Cherilyn Lacy, From caregivers to consumers: domestic medicine and the transformation of medical practice in the Third French Republic, 1871-1914 (1997), PhD Thesis, University of Chicago, 1997


M.L. Tina Stevens, Bioethics in America: origins and cultural politics (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000).


David J. Rothman, Strangers at the bedside: a history of how law and bioethics transformed medical decision-making (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 2003).