Instructor: Nikolai Krementsov, e-mail: <n.krementsov@utoronto.ca>

Office hours: Tuesdays 2-4 PM, at Vic # 312.


This research seminar is focused on the interactions between experimental medicine and experimental biology in Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia, and the United States during the period 1860-1940. Through the reading of primary and secondary sources (including science fiction), it will explore the interplay of ideas, institutions, and practices of experimental biology and experimental medicine with contemporary political, ideological, cultural, and social developments. It will analyze the emergence of such experimental techniques as organ and tissue transplants, reanimation, the perfusion of isolated organs, tissue cultures, blood transfusions, and organotherapies. The seminar will examine how diverse biomedical fields, including pharmacology, endocrinology, histology, gerontology, human genetics, hematology, and immunology, were animated by the discussions of death and immortality.



1. To become familiar with a complex set of ideas about life and death embodied in the development of and interaction between experimental biology and experimental medicine.

2. To increase the ability to analyze scientific ideas and practices within their ideological/cultural frameworks, institutional settings, personal networks, and patronage patterns.

3. To master a comparative perspective on the development of scientific ideas, practices, and disciplines.

4. To develop skills in oral presentations and debate and in writing on historical issues.

5. To master main genres of historical writings (a book review, an encyclopedia entry, a research article) 


January 12.       1. Introduction: life and death as research subjects

January 19.       2. Experimental Medicine: ideas and ideologies

January 26.       3. Experimental Medicine: institutions and patrons

February 2.      4. Experimental Biology: ideas and ideologies

February 9.      5. Experimental Biology: institutions and patrons

February 16.    6. The Biology of Death: Raymond Pearl


February 20-24            Reading Week


March 2.          7. Experimental Death and Experimental Life: isolated organs and tissue cultures

March  9.         8. From Death to Life: transplantations and regeneration

March 16.       9. Faulty Heredity: from eugenics to medical genetics

March 23.       10. Medicine of Immortality: blood

March  30.       11. Fountain of Youth: aging and rejuvenation

April      6.        12. Chemistry of Life and Death: hormones and vitamins

April      13.      13. The Dream of Immortality: science, medicine, and fiction



The course is arranged into 13 two-hour seminars. Each seminar will be in two sections with a 10 minute break in between, and as many discussions with the instructor as students need during the office hours. All students are expected to have read the assigned readings and to participate actively in class discussion, including days when written assignments are due. Each week one student will be responsible for stimulating class discussion. Presenters will be given fifteen minutes to present the day’s topic and to raise discussion questions, but should not simply summarize the readings. The presenters should also bring copies of a one-page list of discussion points for the members of the class. Discussion points may include criticisms, disagreements, support, analysis of sources, and queries of the readings. Each participant should bring to the class three questions (printed) for the discussion.

There will be three written assignments:

1. Students will write a book review (500-800 words); due on February 2;

2. Students will write an encyclopedia entry: a concise, short, 3-5-page history (~1,000-1,500 words) of a chosen field, experimental technique, important personality, etc. (e.g. tissue cultures, gerontology, Raymond Pearl, etc.) in a particular locale (e.g. France, Germany, Canada, etc.); due on March 2;

3. Students will also write a 20-25-page (~6,000-8,000 words) research paper on a subject of their choosing. Students must discuss their paper topics with the instructor by February 16. The first draft of the paper (including a well-developed bibliography of primary and secondary sources) is due at the beginning of class on March 16. The final draft of the paper is due at the beginning of the last class on April 13, 2006. All written assignments must be printed on standard paper, double spaced, using 12 pts font. E-mail submissions will not be accepted! These assignments will be discussed in greater detail during the course of the semester. We will also hold a workshop with students presenting their research papers sometime in early May.


Writing is an essential skill in any historical work and I highly recommend that you buy and study a small, but very useful book, Elements of Style by W. Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (preferably, fourth edition).

UofT also offers help with perfecting your writing skills and I urge you to use it:

Advice on Academic Writing: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/advise.html;

Plagiarism: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/plagsep.html;

Critical Reading leads to Critical Thinking: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/critrdg.html

Writing An Academic Book Review: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/bkrev.html

For further suggestions on writing a book review see George Sarton, “Notes on the Reviewing Learned Books,” Isis, 1950, vol. 41, pp. 149-158 (available On-line through UofT Libraries)


The grading for the course will be distributed as follows:


Class presentations                               20%

Book review                                         15%

Encyclopedia entry                               15%

Essay (first draft)                                  15 %

Essay (final draft)                                  35%


The lateness penalty for all assignments is 1% of the assignment’s mark a day!!!



Readings are intended to give you material for thought and discussion. They are divided into “required” and “recommended.” The first you must read for a corresponding week, the last you can read at your leisure, if you want to know more on the topic. On-line readings must be accessed (downloaded and/or printed out) at least two weeks prior the class for which they are assigned. No excuses such as “server was down” or “my computer crashed” will be accepted!!!

There are several very useful collections of historic materials relevant to our subjects accessible via WWW and I urge you to use them for your assignments and additional readings:

US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE: http://www.nlm.nih.gov


HISTORY OF HEALTH SCIENCES: http://mla-hhss.org/histlink.htm

THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA: http://www.collphyphil.org/HMDLSubweb/indexhmdl.htm_1.htm

WELLCOME TRUST: http://medhist.ac.uk/

HISTORY OF BIOMEDICINE, the Karolinska Institute: http:/www.mic.ki.se/history





William Randall Albury, “Ideas of life and death,” Companion encyclopedia of the history of medicine (London, 1993), vol. 1, pp. 249-280.

Alan G. Wasserstein, “Death and the internal milieu: Claude Bernard and the origins of experimental medicine,” Perspectives in biology and medicine, 1996, 39 (3): 313-326.

William Coleman, “The Cognitive Basis of the Discipline: Claude Bernard on

Physiology,” Isis 1985, 76: 49-70; On-line.

Frederic L. Holmes, “Origins of the concept of the milieu intérieur,” F. Grande Covien and Maurice B. Vissher (eds) Claude Bernard and Experimental Medicine (Cambridge: Schenkman, 1967), pp. 179-192.

Daniel P. Todes, Darwin without Malthus: the struggle for existence in Russian evolutionary thought (Oxford University Press, 1989), Ch. 5. “Mechnikov, Darwinism, and the Phagocytic Theory,” pp. 82-103.

A. L. Cochrane, “Elie Metschnikoff and his theory of an 'instinct de la mort',” (and two commentaries: Mark Aveline, “Elie Metschnikoff and his theory of an 'instinct de la vie',” and Tomas Hugh, “Early thoughts on death, disease, and sex,”) International journal of epidemiology 2003, 32 (1): 32-36; on-line



Mary Shelly, Frankenstein (any edition)

Claude Bernard (1865) Introduction to Experimental Medicine (any edition)

Louis Pasteur (1878) Germ Theory and Its Applications to Medicine and Surgery; On-line at http://www.fordham.edu/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?236052,11989

Il’ia Mechnikov, Essays on Human Nature (any edition); Helena Gourko, Donald I. Williamson and Alfred I. Tauber, eds., The Evolutionary Biology Papers of Elie Metchnikoff (Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

O. Metchnikoff, Life of Elie Metchnikoff, 1845-1916 (any edition)

Gerald L. Geison, “Pasteur, Roux, and rabies: Scientific ‘versus’ clinical mentalities,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 1990, 45: 341-365; on-line.

Marie O'Mahony, Cyborg: The Man-Machine (London: Thames & Hudson, 2002).

Pain and suffering in history: narratives of science, medicine and culture (Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, 1999).

Gerard J. Gruman, A history of Ideas about the Prolongation of Life. [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 1966, 56 (9)]; On-line; recent reprint: Gerald J. Gruman, A History of Ideas about the Prolongation of Life (New York: Springer, 2003).



Timothy Lenoir, “Science for the Clinic: Science Policy and the Formation of Carl Ludwig’s Institute in Leipzig,” in idem, Instituting Science: The Cultural Production of Scientific Disciplines (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997), pp. 96-130.

Paul Weindling, “Scientific elites and laboratory organization in fin de siècle Paris and Berlin: the Pasteur Institute and Robert Koch’s Institute for Infectious Disease compared,” in Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams (eds.) The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 170-188.

L. Emmett Holt, “A Sketch of the Development of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research,” Science, 1906, 24 (601): 1-6; On-line

Philip J. Pauly, “General Physiology and the Discipline of Physiology, 1890-1935,” in Gerald L. Geison, ed., Physiology in the American Context, 1850-1940, (Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society, 1987), pp. 195-208. On-line at http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~pauly/pauly%20general%20physiology.doc

Daniel P. Todes, “Pavlov’s physiology factory,” Isis, 1997, 88: 205-46. On-line

J. H. Cassedy, “The New age of health laboratories,” On-line at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/pdf/newage.pdf



Robert E. Kohler, “The enzyme theory and the origins of biochemistry,” Isis 1973, 54: 181-196; On-line

Daniel Todes, Pavlov’s Physiology Factory: Experiment, Interpretation, Laboratory Enterprise (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002).

George W. Corner, A history of the Rockefeller Institute, 1901-1953 (New York: Rockefeller Institute Press, 1964).

Darwin H. Stapelton, ed., Creating a tradition of biomedical research: contributions to the history of the Rockefeller University (New York: The Rockefeller University Press, 2004).

William Coleman and Frederic L. Holmes (eds.) The investigative enterprise: experimental physiology in nineteenth-century medicine (Berkeley: University of California press, 1988).      



Elizabeth Gaskins, The Rise of Experimental Biology (New York: Random House, 1970); Ch. 6-7, pp. 132-65.

Garland E. Allen, Life Sciences in the Twentieth Century (New York: Wiley, 1975), “Introduction,” pp. xi-xxiii.

Garland E. Allen, “Mechanism, vitalism and organicism in late nineteenth and twentieth-century biology: the importance of historical context,” Studies in the History and Philosophy of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, 2005, 36: 261–283; On-line

Philip J. Pauly, Controlling Life: Jacques Loeb and the Engineering Ideal in Biology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987): “Introduction,” pp. 3-8; Ch. 2, “The Engineering Standpoint,” pp. 28-54.

Fässler, P. E. “Hans Spemann (1869-1941) and the Freiburg School of Embryology,” International journal of developmental biology 1996, 40 (1): 49-57.

Mark B. Adams, “Last Judgment: The Visionary Biology of J. B. S. Haldane,” Journal of the History of Biology, 2000, 33: 457–491; on-line.



J. B. S. Haldane, Dedalus or Science & the Future (any edition); available on-line at various sites, for instance, http://cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/Daedalus.html.

Bertrand Russell, Icarus, or, the Future of Science (any edition) available on-line at http://cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/Icarus.html.

J. B. S. Haldane, “Last Judgment,” in idem, Possible worlds (London: Chatto & Windus, 1927), pp. 287-312.

Arthur Koestler, The Case of the Midwife Toad (any edition)

Garland E. Allen, Life Sciences in the Twentieth Century (New York: Wiley. 1975).

Peter L. Lutz, The rise of experimental biology: an illustrated history (Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press, 2002).



Chas W. Green, “The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology,” Science, 1922, vol. 55, pp. 379-380, On-line.

Nic. Koltzoff, “Experimental Biology and the work of the Moscow Institute,” Science, 1924, 59: 497-502. on-line.

Irmgard Muller, “The Impact of the Zoological Station in Naples on developmental physiology,” International Journal of Developmental Biology, 1996, 40: 103-111

Robert E. Kohler, Partners in Science: Foundations and Natural Scientists, 1900-1945, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), Ch. 1, pp. 1-11.

Mark B. Adams, “Science, Ideology, and Structure: The Kol'tsov Institute, 1900-1970,” in Lubrano, Linda L. and Susan G. Solomon (eds) The Social Context of Soviet Science (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1980), pp. 173-204.

Robert E. Kohler, “Science, Foundations, and American universities in the 1920s,” Osiris, 1987, 3: 135-164; On-line.



Robert E. Kohler, Partners in Science: Foundations and Natural Scientists, 1900-1945, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

Lily E. Kay, The Molecular Vision of Life: Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the

Rise of the New Biology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); particularly, “Introduction,” Ch. 1. “‘Social Control’: Rockefeller Foundation’s Agenda for the Human Sciences, 1913-1933,” and “Conclusion,” pp. 3-57, 280-282.

Jane Maienschein, 100 Years Exploring Life, 1888-1988, The Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole (Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 1989).



Raymond Pearl (1920) “The Biology of Death,” Scientific Monthly, 1921, 12-13 (7 chapters): On-line

Joseph L. Appleton, “Pearl’s Biology of Death,” Science, 1923, vol. 57: 663-665; On-line



Julian Huxley, Essays in popular science, (London: Chatto & Windus, 1926), in particular: “Why do more boy babies die than girls?”; “Biology in Utopia”; “The control of the life-cycle”; “The meaning of death”; “Elixir vitae.”



Jan A. Witkowski, “Experimental pathology and the origins of tissue culture: Leo Loeb's Contribution,” Medical History, 1983, 27: 269-288; On-line at http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=228

Jan A. Witkowski, “Alexis Carrel and the mysticism of tissue culture,” Medical History 1979, 23: 279-296. On-line

J. A. Witkowski, ‘Dr. Carrel’s Immortal Cells’, Medical History, 40 (1980), 129–40; on-line.

Duncan Wilson, “The Early History of Tissue Culture in Britain: The Interwar Years,” Social History of Medicine, 2005, 18 (2): pp. 225–243; on-line

Hannah Landecker, “New times for biology: nerve cultures and the advent of cellular life in vitro,” Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 2002, 33C: 667-694; On-line.

Bronwyn Parry, “Technologies of immortality: the brain on ice,” Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 2004, 35: 391–413; On-line



Alexander Belyaev (1926), The Head of Professor Dowell (any edition)

J. D. Bernal (1929), The world, the flesh and the devil (any edition); available on line at http://cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/Bernal/

A. Carrel, Man the unknown (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1935)

Hugh E. Stephenson, Jr., Robert S. Kimpton, America's first Nobel prize in medicine or physiology: the story of Guthrie and Carrel (Boston, Mass.: Midwestern Vascular Surgery Society and Hugh E. Stephenson, 2001)

W. S. Edwards and P. D. Edwards, Alexis Carrel, visionary surgeon (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, 1974)

S. Robert Hilfer, The Emergence of Experimental Embryology in the United States (Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine, 1990); on-line

R. Scurlock, ed., History and Origins of Cryogenics (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992).



Hans Przibram, “Autophoric Transplantation, Its Theory and Practise,” American naturalist, 1922, Vol. 56, No. 647. 548-559. On-line

M. G. H. Bishop, “The making and re-making of Man. 1, Mary Shelley's 'Frankenstein' and transplant surgery,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1994, 87: 749-751

Susan E. Lederer, “Animal Parts/Human Bodies: Organic Transplantation in Early Twentieth-Century America,” Animal/Human Boundary: Historical Perspectives (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2002), pp. 305-329.

Thomas E. Starzl, “France and the early history of organ transplantation,” Perspectives in biology and medicine, 1993-94, 37: 35-47.

Adele E. Clarke, “Research Materials and Reproductive Science in the United States, 1910–1940.” in Gerald L. Geison, ed. Physiology in the American Context, (Bethesda: American Physiological Society, 1987), pp. 323–350.



H. G. Wells (1896), The Island of Doctor Moreau (any edition)

Eugen Korschelt, (1927) Regeneration and transplantation (Canton, Mass.: Science History, 1990).

Charles E. Dinsmore, ed., A history of regeneration research: milestones in the evolution of a science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991)

Nadey S. Hakim, Vassilios E. Papalois (eds). History of organ and cell transplantation (London: Imperial College Press, 2003)

René Küss, Pierre Bourget, An illustrated history of organ transplantation: the great adventure of the century (Rueil-Malmaison, France: Sandoz, 1992).



T.H. Morgan, “The relation of genetics to physiology and medicine,” Scientific Monthly, 1935, vol. 41, pp. 5-18. On-line

Mark S. Lubinsky, “Degenerate heredity: the history of a doctrine in medicine and biology,” Perspectives in biology and medicine, 1993, 37 (1): 74-90.

John C. Waller, ‘The Illusion of an Explanation’: The Concept of Hereditary Disease, 1770–1870,” Journal of the History of Medicine, 2003, 57: 410-448; on-line.

Diane B. Paul, The Politics of Heredity: Essays on Eugenics, Biomedicine, and the Nature-Nurture Debate (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998), Ch. 9 “Genes and Contagious Disease: The Rise and Fall of a Metaphor,” e-book is available on-line at UofT libraries

Kirill Rossiianov, “Beyond Species: Il’ya Ivanov and His Experiments on Cross-Breeding Humans with Anthropoid Apes,” Science in Context 2002, 15 (2): 277–316; On-line



Olaf Stapleton, Last and First Men (any edition)

Aldous Huxley (1932), Brave New World (any edition).

 H. J. Muller, Out of the Night. A Biologist’s View of the Future (New York: Vanguard, 1935).

Daniel J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics (New York: Knopf, 1985);

William H. Schneider, Quality and Quantity: The Quest for Biological Regeneration in Twentieth-century France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990);

Mark B. Adams (ed.) The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).



Kim Pelis, “Blood clots: the nineteenth-century debate over the substance and means of transfusion in Britain,” Annals of Science 1997; 54(4): 331-60.

Kim Pelis, “Blood standards and failed fluids: clinic, lab, and transfusion solutions in London, 1868-1916,” History of science 2001, 39, pt. 2, no. 124, p. 185-213.

Kim Pelis, “Transfusion with Teeth,” in Robert Bud, Bernard Finn, and Helmuth Trischler (eds.) Manifesting Medicine: Bodies and Machines (Amsterdam: Harwood, 1999), pp. 1-29.

William H. Schneider, “Blood transfusion in peace and war, 1900-1918,” Social History of  Medicine. 1997, 10(1): 105-26; on-line.

Douglas W. Huestis, “The life and death of Alexander Bogdanov, physician,” Journal of medical biography, 1996, 4 (3), 141-147.

Mark B. Adams, “’Red Star’: Another look at Aleksandr Bogdanov,” Slavic Review, 1989, 48 (1), 1-15; on-line.


Bram Stoker, Dracula (any edition)

Alexander Bogdanov, Red Star (any edition)

Douglas P. Starr, Blood: an epic history of medicine and commerce (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998).



W. Andrew Achenbaum, Crossing frontiers: gerontology emerges as a science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 21-51.

Merriley Borell, “Brown-Séquard's organo-therapy and its appearance in America at the end of the 19th century,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 1976, 50: 309-320; on-line.

Chandak Sengoopta, “’Dr. Steinach coming to make old young!’: sex glands, vasectomy and the quest for rejuvenation in the roaring twenties,” Endeavour 2003, 27 (3): 122-126; On-line.

Chandak Senogoopta, “Rejuvenation and the prolongation of life: Science or quackery?” Perspectives in biology and medicine, 1993, 37 (1): 55-66.



Roald Dahl, My Uncle Oswald (any edition)

Ilya Metchnikoff, The Prolongation of Life: Optimistic Studies (New York: Springer, 2004; reprint of 1908 edition);

Morris Fishbain, Medical Follies (New York: Boni & Liveright, 1925), pp. 161-71.

Harry Benjamin, “Eeugen Steinach, 1861-1944,” Scientific monthly 1945, 61 (6): 427-442, On-line.

David Hamilton, The Monkey Gland Affair (London, Chatto & Windus, 1986).

W. Andrew Achenbaum, Crossing frontiers: gerontology emerges as a science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)

John M. Hoberman, Testosterone dreams: rejuvenation, aphrodisia, doping (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).



R. G. Hoskins, “The functions of the endocrine organs,” Scientific Monthly 1924, 18 (3): 257-272, On-line

B. A. Houssay, “The concept of internal secretion,” F. Grande Covien and Maurice B. Vissher (eds) Claude Bernard and Experimental Medicine (Cambridge: Schenkman, 1967), pp. 163-69.

Merriley Borell, “Organotherapy, British physiology, and discovery of the Internal Secretions,” Journal of the History of Biology 1976, 9: 235-268, on-line.

Merriley Borell, “Organotherapy and the emergence of reproductive endocrinology,” Journal of the History of Biology 1985, 18: 1-30, on-line.

Robert B. Tattersall, “Pancreatic organotherapy for diabetes, 1889-1921,” Medical history 1995, 39: 288-316; On-line

Nelly Oudshoorn, “United we stand: The pharmaceutical industry, laboratory, and clinic in the development of sex hormones into scientific drugs, 1920-1940,” Science, Technology, and Human Values 1993, 18: 5-24. On-line

Alesia Maltz, “Physicians' scepticism towards vitamins: The issue of negative causality,” Society for the Social History of Medicine Bulletin 1987, 40: 41-44.

Harmke Kamminga, “Vitamins and the dynamics of molecularization: Biochemistry, policy and industry in Britain, 1914-1939,” Soraya de Chadarevian, Harmke Kamminga (eds.) Molecularizing biology and medicine (Amsterdam: Harwood, 1998), pp.83-105.



Victor Cornelius Medvei,  The history of clinical endocrinology: a comprehensive account of endocrinology from earliest times to the present day (Pearl River, N.Y.: Parthenon Pub. Group, 1993).

Joseph Meites, Bernard T. Donovan, Samuel M. McCann (eds). Pioneers in neuroendocrinology (New York: Plenum, 1975-1978).  2 v.

Kenneth J. Carpenter, Beriberi, white rice, and vitamin B: a disease, a cause, and a cure (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000).

Robert E. Kohler, From Medical Chemistry to Biochemistry: The Making of a Biomedical Discipline (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982).

Mark Weatherall, Dynamic science: Biochemistry in Cambridge, 1898-1949 (London:

Wellcome Trust, 1982)

Frederic L. Holmes, Between Biology and Medicine: The Formation of Intermediary Metabolism, four lectures delivered at the International Summer School in History of Science (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California, 1992).



Craig M. Klugman, “From cyborg fiction to medical reality,” Literature and medicine 2001, 20, (1): 39-54; on-line.

Mark Jeffreys, “Dr. Daedalus and his minotaur: mythic warnings about genetic engineering from J.B.S. Haldane, François Jacob, and Andrew Niccol's 'Gattaca',” Journal of medical humanities 2001, 22, (2): 137-152; on-line.

Mark B. Adams, “The Quest for Immortality: Visions and Presentiments in Science and Literature,” in Stephen G. Post and Robert H. Binstock, eds., The Fountain of Youth: Cultural, Scientific, and Ethical Perspectives on a Biomedical Goal (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 38-71.

Herbert S. Donow, “Human Obsolescence and Rejuvenescence: Some literary treatments,” Gerontology and geriatrics education 1988, 8 (1-2): 113-122.

P. L. Selvais, “The case of Professor Presbury: A literary digression on the controversial Birth of Endocrinology,” Journal of Medical Biography 1998, 6 (3) 149-151.

Michelle Hofmann, “Longevity in a Bottle? Aging and Rejuvenation in Medicine and Literature” (2005), MS.



Robert Heinlein, Time Enough for Love (any edition); Methuselah Children (any edition)

Reinhard Mocek, “Biology of liberation: Some historical aspects of 'proletarian race hygienics',” Kurt Bayertz, Roy Porter (eds.) From physico-theology to bio-technology  (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998), pp. 224-231.

George Slusser, Gary Westfahl, and Eric S. Rabkin, Immortal Engines: Life Extension and Immortality in Science Fiction and Fantasy (Athens: University of Georgia press, 1996).

Gary Westfahl and George Slusser, eds., No Cure for the Future: Disease and Medicine in Science Fiction and Fantasy (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002)

Jon Turney, Frankenstein’s Footsteps: Science, Genetics and Popular Culture (London, 1998).

Susan Lederer, Frankenstein: Penetrating the Secrets of Nature (An Exhibition by the National Library of Medicine) (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002)