HPS319H. HISTORY OF MEDICINE II:
MEDICINE AND MODERNITY, 17th-20th cc.
Spring 2007: Tuesdays 6-8 PM at Victoria College # 323
CCNET url: http://courses.ece.utoronto.ca/20071/hps319h1s/
Instructor: Nikolai Krementsov, Associate Professor, IHPST
OFFICE HOURS: Thursdays 2-4 PM, in Vic # 312.
Delia Gavrus, e-mail: <email@example.com>;
Brigit Ramsingh, e-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org>
This course covers the history of medicine during the “age of modernity,” from the mid-17th century to the present. It will center on the so-called “Western” or “scientific” medicine and explore the interplay of medical ideas, institutions, and practices with contemporary politics, ideology, science, economics, law, technology, and society writ large.
January 9. 1. Introduction: four centuries of modernity
January 16. 2. New diseases, new ideas, old practices: the scientific
January 23. 3. The new medical schools: Leyden, Edinburgh, and beyond
January 30. 4. Medicine institutionalized: the rise of the hospital
February 6. 5. From art to science: the “laboratory” revolution
February 13. 6. Scientific medicine: the “germ” revolution
February 18-24. Reading Week
February 27. 7. The medical profession: historical sociology of medicine
March 6. 8. Medicine and war: “epidemics of injuries” (and diseases)
March 13. 9. Public health, medicine, and the state: from city sewers to
March 20. 10. Medicine and technology: the industrialization of
March 27. 11. Medicine as a business and health as a commodity:
economics of medical care
April 3. 12. The doctor and the patient: from the “Hippocratic Oath”
to the “Patient’s Bill of Rights”
April 10. 13. Health and disease: past, present, and (possible) future(s)
The final examination will be held during the examination period (TBA)
The course is arranged into 13 two-hour lectures. Each lecture will be in two sections with a 10 minute break in between. Prior to a lecture, students are required to access and print-out the lecture’s outline available on the CCNET course site. There will be a tutorial to go with each lecture, and as many individual discussions with the instructor and the tutor as students need. The tutorial sessions will discuss the weekly readings linked to the lecture topic, and will include oral presentations from the class. Written assignments will include a review (500-800 words) of a book, an article, or a movie (subject to approval by the tutor) and a research essay (5-6,000 words) on the topic of student choosing (subject to approval by the tutor and the instructor).
The grading for the course will be distributed as follows:
Class participation 20%
Book/article review 20%
Final exam 30%
The review must be handed in by February ; the essay topic should be approved by the instructor by March and the essay must be in on (or before) the last day of classes on April . The lateness penalty for all assignments is 1% of the assignment’s mark a day!!! All written assignments must be printed, doubles-spaced, using 12 pt font. E-mail submissions are not accepted!
Writing is an essential skill in this course and I highly recommend that you buy and carefully study a small, but very useful book, Elements of Style by W. Strunk, Jr and E. B. White (preferably, fourth edition). UofT also offers help with perfecting your writing skills and I urge you to use it:
Advice on Academic Writing: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/advise.html;
Critical Reading leads to Critical Thinking: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/critrdg.html
Writing An Academic Book Review: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/bkrev.html
For further suggestions on writing a book review see George Sarton, “Notes on the Reviewing Learned Books,” Isis, 1950, vol. 41, pp. 149-158 (available on-line through UofT Libraries)
There are many resources for the history of medicine available on the WWW. Below are several useful links for additional reading and research.
US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE: http://www.nlm.nih.gov
BIBLIOTHÈQUE INTERUNIVERSITAIRE DE MÉDECINE: http://220.127.116.11/histmed/
HISTORY OF HEALTH SCIENCES: http://mla-hhss.org/histlink.htm
THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF PHILADELPHIA: http://www.collphyphil.org/HMDLSubweb/indexhmdl.htm_1.htm
WELLCOME TRUST: http://medhist.ac.uk/
FREE MEDICAL JOURNALS ON LINE: http://www.freemedicaljournals.com/
HISTORY OF BIOMEDICINE, the Karolinska Institute: http:/www.mic.ki.se/history
Several leading journals in the history of medicine are available on-line at the UofT libraries and via Utordial:
Readings are intended to supplement the lectures and give you material for thought and discussion. They are divided into “required” and “recommended.” The first you must read before each corresponding lecture, the second you can read at your leisure, if you want to know more on the topic. Supplementary materials may also be handed out in class or posted on CCNET during the course of the semester. There are many general texts on the history of medicine, which can be used as background readings for the course. I can recommend the following books: Roy Porter, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind (London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1997); Jacalyn Duffin, History of Medicine (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999); Paul Strathern, A Brief History of Medicine (New York: Carrol &Graf Publishers, 2005). None of them, however, covers all the material in the course and can be used as a text-book.
1. INTRODUCTION: FOUR CENTURIES OF MODERNITY
Robert E. Herzstein, Western Civilization (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1975), vol. 2. From the Seventeenth Century to the Present.
Josephine Tey, The Daughter of Time (any edition)
2. NEW DISEASES, NEW IDEAS, OLD PRACTICES: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
H. J. Cook, “The new philosophy and medicine in seventeenth-century England,” in D. C. Lindberg and R. S. Westman, eds., Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 397-436.
Bruce T. Moran, “A survey of chemical medicine in the 17th century: spanning court, classroom, and cultures,” Pharmacy in history, 1996, 38, no. 3, pp. 121-133
R. Boyle, Memoirs for the Natural History of Humane Blood (1684). Preface
Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654). The English physitian: or an astrologo-physical discourse of the vulgar herbs of this nation (London: Peter Cole, 1652). http://www.med.yale.edu/library/historical/culpeper/culpeper.htm
John Westover (1643-1706), The journal of John Westover, surgeon, 1686-1703 / edited by William G. Hall (1992). http://www.tutton.org/content/Westover_journal.pdf
Steven Shapin, “Descartes the doctor: rationalism and its therapies,” British Journal of the History of Science, 2000, 33, pp. 131-154.
Ole Peter Grell and Andrew Cunningham, eds., Religio medici: medicine and religion in seventeenth-century England (Aldershot: Scholar Press, 1996).
Roger French and Andrew Wear, eds., The Medical Revolution of the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Andrew Wear, “Medicine in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1700,” in Lawrence I. Conrad et al., The Western Medical Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 215-362.
Daniel Defoe, A Journal of a Plague Year (any edition)
Iain Pears, An instance of the fingerpost (1999, any edition).
3. THE NEW MEDICAL SCHOOLS: LEYDEN, EDINBURGH, AND BEYOND
Andrew Cunningham, “Medicine to calm the mind: Boerhaave’s medical system and why it was adopted in Edinburgh,” in Andrew Cunningham and Roger French, eds., The medical enlightenment of the eighteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 67-87
H. J. Cook, “Boerhaave and the Flight from Reason in Medicine,” Bulletin for the History of Medicine (hereafter—BHM), 2000, 74, pp. 221–240 (CCNet)
R. G. Anderson and A. D. C. Simpson, eds., The Early Years of the Edinburgh Medical School (Edinburgh: Royal Scottish Museum, 1976)
Lisa M. Rosner, Medical Education in the Age of Improvement: Edinburgh Students and Apprentices, 1760-1826 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991)
Andrew Cunningham and Roger French, eds., The Medical Enlightenment of the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)
4. MEDICINE INSTITUTIONALIZED: THE RISE OF THE HOSPITAL.
Ivan Waddington, “The Role of the Hospital in the Development of Modern Medicine: A Sociological Analysis,” Sociology, 1973, 7, pp. 211-224
I. S. L. Loudon, “The Origins and Growth of the Dispensary Movement in England,” BHM, 1981, 55, pp. 322-342 ( CCNET)
Charles Rosenberg, “Introduction,” in idem, The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America’s Hospital System (New York: Basic Books, 1987), pp. 3-11
Owsei Temkin, “The Role of Surgery in the Rise of Modern Medical Thought,” idem, The Double Face of Janus (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1977), pp. 487-496
John C. O'Neal, “Auenbrugger, Corvisart, and the Perception of Disease,” Eighteenth-Century Studies, 1998, 31:4, pp. 473-489.
John Frangos, From Housing the Poor to Healing the Sick: The Changing Institution of Paris Hospitals under the Old Regime and Revolution (Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997)
Michel Foucault, The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception (New York: Pantheon, 1973)
Steven Cherry, Medical Services and the Hospitals in Britain, 1860-1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)
Charles Rosenberg, The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America’s Hospital System (New York: Basic Books, 1987)
5. FROM ART TO SCIENCE: THE “LABORATORY” REVOLUTION.
Alan G. Wasserstein, “Death and the internal milieu: Claude Bernard and the origins of experimental medicine,” Perspectives in biology and medicine, 1996, 39 (3) pp. 313-326.
L. S. Jacyna, “ ‘A Host of Experienced Microscopists’: The Establishment of Histology in Nineteenth-Century Edinburgh,” BHM, 2001, 75, pp. 225 –253 ( CCNET)
Merriley Borell, “Instrumentation and the Rise of Modern Physiology,” Science & Technology Studies, 1987, 5 (2), pp. 53-62 ( CCNET)
Claude Bernard, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (New York: Dover Publications, 1957)
Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, eds., The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992)
W. F. Bynum, Science and the practice of medicine in the nineteenth century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)
Johannes Buttner, “Impacts of laboratory methodology on medical thinking in the 19th century,” Medical sciences history, 17 (2001), p. 19-25.
6. SCIENTIFIC MEDICINE: THE “GERM” REVOLUTION.
Owsei Temkin, “An Historical Analysis of the Concept of Infection” in idem, Double Face of Janus, pp. 465-471.
Mariko Ogawa, “Uneasy Bedfellows: Science and Politics in the Refutation of Koch’s Bacterial Theory of Cholera,” BHM, 2000, 74, pp. 671–707( CCNET)
Paul Weindling, “From medical research to clinical practice: serum therapy for diphtheria in the 1890s,” in John V. Pickstone, ed., Medical innovations in historical perspective (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992), pp. 72-83.
Modern History Sourcebook:
Edward Jenner (1749-1823): Three Original Publications On Vaccination Against Smallpox, 1798: http://www.fordham.edu/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?236052,11863
Joseph Lister (1827-1912): Antiseptic Principle Of The Practice Of Surgery, 1867
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Germ Theory and Its Applications to Medicine and Surgery, 1878: http://www.fordham.edu/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?236052,11989
Louis Pasteur (1822-1894): Extension Of The Germ Theory, 1880
Jerry L. Gaw, “A time to heal”: the diffusion of Listerism in Victorian Britain (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1999) (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, v. 89)
Paul de Kruif, Microbe Hunters (any edition)
7. THE MEDICAL PROFESSION: HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY OF MEDICINE.
Bernice Hamilton, “The Medical Profession in the Eighteenth Century,” The Economic History Review, 1951, 4, pp. 141-169 (CCNET)
George Weisz, “The Emergence of Medical Specialization in the Nineteenth Century,” BHM, 2003, 77, pp. 536 –575 (CCNET)
Thomas Broman, “Rethinking Professionalization: Theory, Practice, and Professional Ideology in Eighteenth Century German Medicine,” Journal of Modern History, 1995, 67, pp. 835-872
John C. Burnham, “How the concept of profession evolved in the work of historians of medicine,” BHM, 1996, 70, pp. 1-24.
Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine
(Basic Books, 1982), Ch. 1, “Medicine in a Democratic Culture, 1760-1850,” pp.
George Weisz, “Medical Directories and Medical Specialization in France, Britain, and the United States,” BHM, 1997, 71, pp. 23-68
Elaine Thomson, “Physiology, hygiene and the entry of women to the medical profession in Edinburgh c. 1869-c. 1900,” Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 2001, 32C, (1), pp. 105-126.
Matthew Ramsey, Professional and Popular Medicine in France: The Social World of Medical Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987)
8. MEDICINE AND WAR: ‘EPIDEMICS OF INJURIES’ (AND DISEASES)
Martin R Howard, “Walcheren 1809: A medical catastrophe,” British Medical Journal, Dec 18-Dec 25, 1999, 319, pp. 1642-45 (CCNET)
Anne Hardy, “ ‘Straight Back to Barbarism’: Antityphoid Inoculation and the Great War, 1914,” BHM, 2000, 74, pp. 265–290. (CCNET)
Kim Pelis, “Taking Credit: The Canadian Army Medical Corps and the British Conversion to Blood Transfusion in WWI,” Journal of the History of Medicine (hereafter—JHM), 2001, 56, pp. 238-277 (CCNET)
Derek S. Linton, “Was Typhoid Inoculation Safe and Effective during World War I? Debates within German Military Medicine,” JHM, 2000, 55, pp. 101-133
Martin R. Howard, Wellington's doctors: the British Army Medical Services in the Napoleonic wars (Staplehurst: Spellmount, 2002)
John Shepherd, The Crimean Doctors (Liverpool Univ. Press, 1991), vols. 1-2
George W. Adams, Doctors in blue: the medical history of the Union Army in the Civil War (Baton Rouge; London: Louisiana State University Press, 1996)
Roger Cooter, Mark Harrison, and Steve Sturdy, eds., War, medicine and modernity (Stroud: Sutton, 1998)
9. PUBLIC HEALTH, MEDICINE, AND THE STATE: FROM CITY SEWERS TO THE WHO
Christopher Hamlin, “Edwin Chadwick, ‘Mutton Medicine,’ and the Fever Question,” BHM, 1996, 70 (2), pp. 233-265 (CCNET)
Ann F. La Berge, “The Early 19th century French Public Health Movement: The Disciplinary Development and Institutionalization of Hygiene Publique,” BHM, 1984, 58, pp. 363-379 (CCNET)
Judith W. Leavitt, “ ‘Typhoid Mary’ Strikes Back: Bacteriological Theory and Practice in Early 20th Century Public Health,” Isis, 1992, Vol. 83, pp. 608-629 (CCNET)
Johan Peter Frank, “The civil administrator, most successful physician,” (1784), translated by Jean Captain Sabine, BHM, 1944, 16, pp. 289-318
Max von Pettenkofer, The Value of Health to A City: Two Popular Lectures. Translated with an introduction by Henry E. Sigerist (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1941), pp 15-52
George Rosen, From Medical Police to Social Medicine (New York: Science History Publications, 1974)
Richard J. Evans, Death in Hamburg: Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830-1910 (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1987)
WHO HISTORIES: http://www.who.int/library/historical/access/international/index.en.shtml
10. MEDICINE AND TECHNOLOGY: THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF MEDICINE
Stanley J. Reiser, Medicine and the reign of technology (Cambridge University Press, 1978), ch. 4, “The Microscope and the revelation of a cellular universe,” pp. 69-90
Christopher W. Crenner, “Introduction of the blood pressure cuff into U.S. medical practice: technology and skilled practice,” Annals of internal medicine, 1998, 128, no. 6, pp. 488-493. (CCNET)
Peter Neushul, “Marie C. Stopes and the Popularization of the Birth Control Technology,” Technology and Culture, 1998, 39, pp. 245-272.(CCNET)
Stanley J. Reiser, Medicine and the reign of technology (Cambridge University Press, 1978)
Joseph Bronzino, Vincent Smith, and Maurice Wade, Medical Technology and Society: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990)
Hamilton Cravens, Alan I. Marcus, and David M. Katzman, eds., Technical Knowledge in American Culture: Science, Technology, and Medicine Since the Early 1800s (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1996)
Joel D. Howell, Technology in the hospital: Transforming patient care in the early 20th century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1995).
Cynthia R. Daniels and Janet Golden, “Procreative Compounds: Popular Eugenics, Artificial Insemination and the Rise of the American Sperm Banking Industry,” Journal of Social History, 2004, 38 (1), pp. 5-27.
Kirk Jeffrey, Machines in Our Hearts: The Cardiac Pacemaker, the Implantable Defibrillator, and American Health Care (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2001)
“Artificial Heart”: www.asme.org/eyewitness/heart
This site offers a fascinating history of the development of “artificial heart” technology
“A Brief History of Electrocardiography”: www.ecglibrary.com/ecghistory
11. MEDICINE AS A BUSINESS AND HEALTH AS A COMMODITY: ECONOMICS OF MEDICAL CARE
Samuel H. Adams (1905), “Peruna and the Bracers,” from S. Rappoport and H. Wright, eds., Great Adventures in Medicine (New York: The Dial Press, 1952), pp. 480-489
Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine (Basic Books, 1982), Book II, Ch. 5, “The Coming of the Corporation,” pp. 420-449
Charles C. Mann and Mark L. Plummer, The Aspirin Wars: Money, Medicine and 100 Years of Rampant Competition (New York: Knopf, 1991)
Jones, Edgar. The Business of Medicine: The Extraordinary History of Glaxo, a Baby Food Producer, Which Became One of the World's Most Successful Pharmaceutical Companies (London: Profile, 2001)
J. Liebenau, G. J. Higby, and E. C. Stroud, eds., Pill Peddlers (Madison: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, 1990)
“MEDICINE AND MADISON AVENUE”: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/mma/
This site provides a wealth of information on the relation between advertising industry and medicine
12. THE DOCTOR AND THE PATIENT: FROM THE “HIPPOCRATIC OATH” TO THE “BILL OF PATIENT’S RIGHTS”
“THE OATH” in Hippocrates, Works (translated by Francis Adams)
Paul Weindling, “The Origins of Informed Consent: The International Scientific Commission on Medical War Crimes, and the Nuremberg Code,” BHM, 2001, 75, pp. 37–71 (CCNET)
G. Annas, “A National Bill of Patient’s Rights,” New England Journal of Medicine, 1998, 338 (10), pp. 695-699 (CCNET)
Paul Starr, “Health and the right to privacy,” American Journal of Law and Medicine, 1999; 25, pp. 193-201 (CCNET)
T. Percival, Medical Jurisprudence; or, A Code of Ethics and Institutes Adapted to the Professions of Physic and Surgery (1794);
Edward Shorter, Bedside Manners: The Troubled History of Doctors and Patients (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985)
M.L. Tina Stevens, Bioethics in America: Origins and Cultural Politics (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000).
David J. Rothman, Strangers at the Bedside: A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 2003).
13. HEALTH AND DISEASE: PAST, PRESENT, AND (POSSIBLE) FUTURE(S)
Owsei Temkin, “Health and Disease,” in idem, The Double Face of Janus (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977), pp. 419–40
Owsei Temkin, “The Scientific Approach to Disease: Specific Entity and Individual Sickness,” in ibid, pp. 441–55
Charles E. Rosenberg, “Framing Disease: Illness, Society, and History,” in idem, Explaining Epidemics and Other Studies in the History of Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 305-318
Susan Sontag, “Illness as a Metaphor” and “AIDS and Its Metaphors” (New York: Anchor Books, 1989)
Andrew Cunningham, “Transforming Plague: The Laboratory and the Identity of Infectious Disease,” in Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, eds., The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 209-244.
John C. Waller, ‘The Illusion of an Explanation’: The Concept of Hereditary Disease, 1770–1870,” JHM, 2003, 57, pp. 410-448
Charles E. Rosenberg, Explaining Epidemics and Other Studies in the History of Medicine (Cambridge University Press, 1992)
Terence Ranger and Paul Slack, eds., Epidemics and Ideas. Essays on the Historical Perception of Pestilence (Cambridge University Press, 1992)
Michael Crichton, The Andromeda Strain (any edition)