The incompleteness of S4 ⨁ S4 for the product space ℝ × ℝ

Shehtman introduced bimodal logics of the products of Kripke frames, thereby introducing frame products of unimodal logics. Van Benthem, Bezhanishvili, ten Cate and Sarenac generalize this idea to the bimodal logics of the products of topological spaces, thereby introducing topological products of unimodal logics. In particular, they show that the topological product of S4 and S4 is S4 ⨁ S4, i.e., the fusion of S4 and S4: this logic is strictly weaker than the frame product S4 × S4. Indeed, van Benthem et al show that S4 ⨁ S4 is the bimodal logic of the particular product space ℚ × ℚ, leaving open the question of whether S4 ⨁ S4 is also complete for the product space ℝ × ℝ. We answer this question in the negative.

Keywords: bimodal logic, multimodal logic, topological semantics, topological product, product space.