July., 2003



1. Personal

Date of Birth: 27 December, 1937

Citizenship: Canadian

Place of Birth: Hamilton, Ontario

Home Address: 359 Markham Street, Toronto, Ontario M6G 2K8

Home Phone: (416) 975-2617

University Address: Room 286, University College, University of Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1

Office Phone: (416) 978-8155



2. Degrees

Degrees Earned:

B.Sc., Honours Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, McMaster University, 1960;

Ph.D., Philosophy, University of Iowa, 1965

Ph.D. Thesis:

Studies in Analyticity

Supervisor of Ph.D. Research:

Professor Gustav Bergmann, Philosophy Department, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa


3. Employment

Present Appointment:

Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto, 1965-69

Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto, 1969-81

Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto, 1981-2003

Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto, 2003-

Appointed to School of Graduate Studies, Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto, 1967-2003

Granted tenure, Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto, 1969

Cross-appointed to Department of Ethics, University College, University of Toronto, 1965-75

Cross-appointed to University College, University of Toronto, 1975-2003

Affiliate, Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, 1969-2003

Other Appointments:

Research Assistant, Physics Laboratory, National Research Council, Ottawa, Summer 1959

Teaching Assistant, University of Iowa, 1961-64

Instructor, Iowa State University, Summer 1964

Acting Instructor, University of Iowa, 1964-65

Visiting Assistant Professor, State University of New York at Buffalo, summer 1967

On an exchange arrangement, part-time Visiting Professor, Philosophy Department, Glendon College, York University, 1983-84, 1984-85, 1985-86, 1989-90; and Graduate Department of Philosophy, York University, summer 1985

On an exchange arrangement, part-time Visiting Professor, Graduate Department of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario, 1994-5


4. Honours

The Royal Society of Canada, Elected Fellow, May 1994

Included in Canadian Who's Who, 1990-present

Ultimate Reality and Meaning, Award for Best Article 1998-1999

Canadian Philosophical Association/Broadview Press, Book Prize, 2003, for The Logic and Methodology of Science in Early Modern Thought


5. Professional Affiliations and Activities

Research Grants Adjudication Committee, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, 1995- 1997

New Researchers Grants Adjudication Committee, University of Toronto, 2000

Editor, Hume Studies, 1990- 1993 (with Robert Muehlmann)

Member, Editorial Board, Hume Studies, 1985-93

Member, Editorial Board, Interchange, 1986-94

Member, Editorial Board, History of Philosophy Quarterly, 1989-94

Member, Editorial Advisory Board, Interchange, 1998-

Contributing Editor, Episteme, 2002-

Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Academic Ethics, 2002-

Member, Board of Consultants, Ontario Skeptics, 2001-

Member, Hannah Medal Selection Committee, Royal Society of Canada, 2001, 2002, 2003

Chair, Hannah Medal Selection Committee, Royal Society of Canada, 2003

Heath Sciences Ethics Review Committee, Community Member, 2003-



6. A. Research Endeavours


philosophy of science (including philosophy of psychology and philosophy of social sciences), science vs. pseudoscience

philosophy of mind

history of early modern philosophy, David Hume, John Stuart Mill, British idealism

philosophy and literature

philosophical problems of death and dying

problems of post-secondary education


B. Research Awards

On Research Leave, University of Toronto, 1974-75 (supported by a Leave Fellowship from the Canada Council)

On Sabbatical Leave, University of Toronto, 1979-80 (supported by a Leave Fellowship from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council)

On Sabbatical Leave, University of Toronto, 1986-87

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Grant on the "History of Early Modern Logic," with T. Lennon (Principle Researcher), K. Ohkrulik, L. Falkenstein, R. Muehlmann, R. Butts (all University of Western Ontario), and H. Jones (McMaster University). 1992-5.

On Sabbatical Leave, University of Toronto, 1993-4 (supported by a Connaught Fellowship)

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Grant on the "History and Methodology of Introspectionist Psychology," 1993-94

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Grant on the "History of Relations in British Philosophy between Coleridge and Green," 1998-2000

On Sabbatical Leave, University of Toronto, Winter Term, 2000-2001




7. Refereed Publications

A. Articles


"Implicit Definition Once Again", The Journal of Philosophy, 62, (l965), pp. 364-374


"The World and Reality in the Tractatus," The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 5 (1967), pp. 253-260

"Definition and Discovery (I)," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 18 (1967), pp. 287-303

"Definition and Discovery (II)," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 19 (1967), pp. 43-56


"A Note on Operationism," Critica, 2 (1968), pp. 79-87

"Is Operationism Unjust to Temperature?" Synthese, 18 (1968), pp. 394-422


"Barker on Geometry as A Priori," Philosophical Studies, 20 (1969), pp. 49-53

"Dispositions:  Defined or Reduced?" Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 47 (1969), pp. 184-204

"Explanation in Aristotle, Newton and Toulmin (I)," Philosophy of Science, 36 (1969), pp. 291-310

"Explanation in Aristotle, Newton and Toulmin (II)," Philosophy of Science, 36 (1969), pp. 400-428

"The Role of a Principle of Acquaintance in Ontology," The Modern Schoolman, 47 (l969), pp. 37-56

"Weinberg's Refutation of Nominalism," Dialogue, 8 (l969), pp. 460-474

Review of J. Robson, The Improvement of Mankind, Dialogue, 8 (1969), pp. 317-321


"Acquaintance, Ontology and Knowledge," The New Scholasticism, 54 (1970), pp. 1-48

Review of E.D. Klemke, The Epistemology of G.E. Moore, Dialogue, 9 (l970), pp. 685-689

Review of J. Yolton, Metaphysical Analysis, Philosophy of Science, 37 (1970), pp. 544-558


"Discussion of Achinstein's Concepts of Science," Philosophy of Science, 38 (1971), pp. 442-452

Review of R.S. Cohen and R.J. Seeger (eds.), Ernst Mach:  Physicist and Philosopher, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. VI, Dialogue, 10 (1971), pp. 584-589

Review of P.V. Tanavec (ed.), Problems in the Logic of Scientific Knowledge, Dialogue, 10 (1971), pp. 590-591

Review of I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave (ed.), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, Dialogue, 10 (1971), pp. 829-832


Review of N. Rescher, Scientific Explanation, Dialogue, 11 (1972), pp. 655-657

Review of R. Eberle, Nominalistic Systems, Philosophy of Science, 39 (l972), pp. 556-558


"Marras on Sellars on Thought and Language," Philosophical Studies, 28 (l975), pp. 91-102.

Review of C. Chihara, Ontology and the Vicious-Circle Principle, Philosophy of Science, 42 (1975), pp. 339-341


Critical Review of I. Hacking, The Emergence of Probability, The Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 8 (1978), pp. 587-597


"Hume and Ducasse on Causal Inference from a Single Experiment," Philosophical Studies, 35 (1979), pp. 305-309

Review of M. Mandelbaum, The Anatomy of Historical Knowledge, Philosophical Review, 88 (l979), pp. 663-668

Review of Y. Gauthier, Methodes et concepts de la logique formelle, and R. Hebert, Mobiles du discours philosophiques, University of Toronto Quarterly, 48 (1979), pp. 474-477


Review of T. St.-Arnaud, La Psychologie, University of Toronto Quarterly, 57 (1981), pp. 504-507


"Mill's Proof that Happiness Is the Criterion of Morality," Journal of Business Ethics, 1 (1982), pp. 59-72

"Mill on the Operation of Discovering and proving General Propositions," Mill Newsletter, 17 (1982), pp. 1-14

"Is There a Prussian Hume?" Hume Studies, 8 (1982), pp. 1-18.

Reprinted in: S. Tweyman, ed., David Hume: Critical Assessments (London: Routledge, 1995), vol. VI, pp. 280-294

"A Note on Hempel on the Logic of Reduction," International Logic Review 13 (1982), pp. 17-29

Review of R. Tuomela, Human Action and Its Explanation, Dialogue, 21 (1982), pp. 571-577

Review of J. C. Pitt, (ed.), The Philosophy of Wilfrid Sellars: Queries and Extensions, The Review of Metaphysics, (1982), pp. 469-470


"Hume's Defence of Causal Inference," Dialogue, 22 (l983), pp. 661-694

"Mill's 'Proof' of Utility and the Composition of Causes," Journal of Business Ethics, 2 (1983), pp. 135-158

"Hume's Sceptical Argument Against Reason," Hume Studies, 9 (1983), pp. 90-129

"Kuhn and Goodman: Revolutionary vs. Conservative Science," Philosophical Studies, 44 (1983), pp. 369-380

"Effability, Ontology and Method," Philosophy Research Archives, 9 (1983), pp. 419-470


"Is Hume a Sceptic with regard to Reason?" Philosophy Research Archives, 10 (1984), pp. 275-320

Critical Review of J. Katz, Language and Other Abstract Objects, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 14 (1984), pp. 663-673

Review of T. Beauchamp, R. Faden, R.J. Wallace Jr., and L. Walters (eds.), Ethical Issues in Social Science Research, Canadian Philosophical Reviews, 4 (1984), pp. 3-5


"The Origins of Hume's Sceptical Argument Against Reason," History of Philosophy Quarterly, 1 (1985), pp 323-336

Reprinted in: S. Tweyman, ed., David Hume: Critical Assessments (London: Routledge, 1995), vol. I, pp. 253-266

"Hume's Cognitive Stoicism," Hume Studies, 1985 Supplement, pp. 521-68

"Dispositions Defined:  Harré and Madden on Analyzing Disposition Concepts," Philosophy of Science, 52 (1985), pp. 591-607

"Addis on Defining Disposition Concepts," Inquiry, 28 (1985), pp. 247-72

Critical Review of P. Jones, Hume's Sentiments, Noûs, 20 (1985), pp. 274-81

Review of N. Rescher, The Heritage of Logical Positivism, Canadian Philosophical Reviews, 5 (1985), pp. 474-6


"Hume's Defence of Science," Dialogue, 25 (1986), pp. 611-628

"Hume and Derrida on Language and Meaning," Hume Studies, 12 (1986), pp. 99-121

"Wright's Enquiry concerning Humean Understanding," Critical Review of John Wright, The Sceptical Realism of David Hume, Dialogue, 25 (1986), pp. 747-752

Critical Review of R. Grossmann, The Categorial Structure of the World, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 16 (1986), pp. 163-180.

Review of R. Brown, The Nature of Social Laws, Mill News Letter, 21 (1986), pp. 27-32


"The Distribution of Terms:  A Defence of the Traditional Doctrine," Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, 28 (1987), pp. 439-454

"Resemblance, Universals and Sorites:  Comments on March on Sorting out Sorites," Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 17 (1987), pp. 175-84

Review of N. Swartz, The Concept of Physical Law, Philosophy of Science, 54 (1987), pp. 130-32

Review of E. Prior, Dispositions, Canadian Philosophical Reviews, 7 (1987), pp. 14-16


"Hume, Scepticism and Conservativism," Queen's Quarterly, 95 (1986), pp. 591-607

Review of Graham Macdonald and Crispin Wright, eds., Fact, Science and Morality: Essays on A. J. Ayer's Language, Truth and Logic, Teaching Philosophy, 11 (1988), pp. 179-81

Review of D. Livingston, Hume's Philosophy of Common Life, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 18 (1988), pp. 139-42


"William Wordsworth and the Culture of Science," The Centennial Review, 33 (1989), pp. 322-392

"Is Hume a Sceptic with regard to the Senses?"  Journal for the History of Philosophy, 27 (1989), pp. 49-73

"Was Hume a Subjectivist?" Philosophy Research Archives, 14 (1989), pp. 247-82.

"Hume's Fictional Continuant," History of Philosophy Quarterly, 6 (1989), pp. 171-188

"The Logic of Probabilities in Hume's Argument against Miracles," Hume Studies, 15 (1989), pp. 155-76.

Reprinted in: R. Larmer, ed., Questions of Miracles (Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1996), pp. 3-24; and in David Owen, ed., Hume, in the series International Library of Critical Essays in the History of Philosophy (Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate, 2000)

"Laws and Other Worlds: A Response to Martin," Dialogue, 28 (1989), pp. 332-334

Critical Review of Janice Newson and Howard Buchbinder, The University Means Business, Interchange 20 (1989), pp. 100-103


Review of J. O. Wisdom, Challengeability in Modern Science, Philosophy of Science, 57 (1990), pp. 169-70


"Mill and Comte on the Method of Introspection," Journal for the History of Behavioral Science, 27 (1991), pp. 107-129.

"Hume's Critical Realism: A Reply to Livingston," Journal of the History of Philosophy, 29 (1991), pp. 291-296.

"Hume on the Abstract Idea of Existence: Comments on Cummins' 'Hume on the Idea of Existence'," Hume Studies, 17 (1991), pp. 167-201.

"Solway on Losing Education: Comments on D. Solway's 'The Anecdotal Function' and Education Lost," Interchange, 22 (1991), pp. 88-93


"Hume Studies in Canada," Eidos 10 (1992), pp. 199-216

Review of Alan C. Cairns, The Charter versus Federalism: The Dilemmas of Constitutional Reform, Dalhousie Review, 72 (1992), pp. 114-117.

Response to Review of Psychological Analysis and the Philosophy of John Stuart Mill by D. S. Robinson, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 28 (1992), pp. 71-73.


"Higher Education and Conflict of Interest: Canadian Perspectives," Higher Education in Europe, 18 (1993), pp. 19-23.

"Is Science Itself the Cause of Ineffective Science Teaching?" Interchange, 23 (1993), pp. 297-302. Discussion of A. Rampal, "A Possible 'Orality' for Science?" [Interchange 23 (1992), pp. 227-44], with reply by Rampal, "Maintaining the Status Quo - A Response to Fred Wilson and John Wilson" [Interchange, 23 (1993), pp. 309-314].

Review of Wendy Donner, The Liberal Self, Mind, Jan. 1993.

Review of G. Deleuze, Empiricism and Subjectivity: An Essay on Hume's Theory of Human Nature, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 29 (1993), pp. 380-82


Review of M. Laine, ed., A Cultivated Mind, The Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 30 (1994), pp. 76-79.


"Perceptual Ideality and the Ground of Inference: Comments on Ferreira's Defence," Bradley Studies, 1 (1995), pp. 139-152

"Burgersdijck, Bradley, Russell, Bergmann: Four Philosophers on the Ontology of Relations," The Modern Schoolman, 72 (1995), pp. 283-310

"Empiricism and the Epistemology of Instruments," The Monist, 78 (1995), pp. 207-229

"Once More to Dissolve the Ravens," International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 9 (1995), pp. 135-46

"The Dialectic of the Master-Student Relationship: Critical Notice on J. Agassi's A Philosopher's Apprentice: In Karl Popper's Workshop," Interchange, 26 (1995), pp. 193-203

"Standardized Tests: Comments on Meaghan and Casas," Interchange, 26 (1995), pp. 73-79

Review of Peter C. Emberley and Waller R. Newell, Bankrupt Education: The Decline of Liberal Education in Canada, CAUT Bulletin, March 1996, p. 10

"On Hume's Theory of Consciousness: Review of W. Waxman Hume's Theory of Consciousness," Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal (New School of Social Research), 18 (1995), pp. 271-75.

Review of A. Brook, Kant and the Mind, The Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 31 (1995), pp. 175-79. "Response" by A. Brook, ibid., pp. 179-80.

Review of M. Friedman, Kant and the Exact Sciences, The Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 31 (1995), pp. 263-68


"Hobbes' Inductive Methodology," History of Philosophy Quarterly, 13 (1996), pp. 167-186

"Introduction to a Symposium on Climate Issues, Speech Codes, and Academic Freedom," Interchange, 27 (1996), pp. 99-101, not refereed [Introduction to a symposium organized by F. Wilson, with contributions by W. R. Bond, F. Wilson, M. Kubara, S. Drury, J. Furedy, B. Schrank, H. Woodhouse, D. Cook, J. R. Brown, and J. T. Stevenson]

"In Defence of Speech Codes," Interchange 27 (1996), pp. 125-159


Critical Review of Michael Dummett, Origins of Analytical Philosophy, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 27 (1997), pp. 377-406


"Bradley's Critique of Associationism," Bradley Studies, 4 (1998), pp. 5-60.


"Some Controversies about Method in Nineteenth- Century Psychology," Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Science, 30C (1999), pp. 91-142.

" The Ultimate Unifying Principle of Coleridge's Metaphysics of Relations and Our Knowledge of Them," Ultimate Reality and Meaning, 21 (1999), pp. 243-61.

"The Significance for Psychology of Bradley's Humean View of the Self," Bradley Studies, 5 (1999), pp. 5-44.


"Ultimate Reality and Meaning in the Art of Piet Mondrian," Ultimate Reality and Meaning 23 (2000), pp. 339-376

"Wasted Time at University: Where Is It Going?" in David Man, ed., On Higher Education, (Toronto: Students Administrative Council, 2000), pp. 15-19


"Galileo's Lunar Observations: Do They Imply Rejection of Traditional Lunar Theory?" Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 32 (2001), pp. 557-570

"Thomas A. Goudge," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Canada, Sixth Series, 12 (2001), pp. 163-166.


"Reflections on Kovacs Reflections on Death," Ultimate Reality and Meaning, 25 (2002), pp. 225-239


"Consciousness of Ultimate Reality in the Development of the Art of Lawren Harris," Ultimate Reality and Meaning, 26 (2003), pp. 22-48

"Education as Economic Investment: Comments on Tuition Fee Policy," Interchange, 34 (2003), pp. 89-104.


"Hume's Critique of Calvinism," forthcoming in B. Logan and S. Tweyman, eds., Eighteenth Century Studies in Philosophy

"Bosanquet on the Ontology of Logic and the Methodology of Science" forthcoming in The Philosophy of Bernard Bosanquet, ed. with an introduction by W. Sweet and C. Tyler

"Empiricism: Principles and Problems," forthcoming in The Nature of Metaphysics, ed. with an introduction by W. Sweet and J. Thomas

"Freud and the Vienna Circle," accepted for a volume of essays on Austrian Philosophy, ed. W. Huemer, currently searching for a publisher, ms. pp. 27

"Are Strikes at Universities Ethical?" Academic Ethics


B. Books and Chapters


With A. Hausman, Carnap and GoodmanTwo Formalists, Iowa Studies in Philosophy, Vol. III (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1967)

"The Notion of Logical Necessity in the Later Philosophy of R. Carnap," in A. Hausman and F. Wilson, Carnap and GoodmanTwo Formalists, Iowa Studies in Philosophy, Vol. III (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1967), pp. 97-225


"Why I Do Not Experience Your Pain," in M. Gram and E. Klemke (eds.), The Ontological TurnEssays in Honour of Gustav Bergmann (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1974, pp. 276-300


"Hume's Theory of Mental Activity," in D. F. Norton, N. Capaldi, and W. Robison (eds.), McGill Hume Studies (San Diego:  Austin Hill Press, 1979), pp. 101-120

Reprinted in: S. Tweyman, ed., David Hume: Critical Assessments (London: Routledge, 1995), vol. III, pp. 176-193


"Goudge's Contribution to the Philosophy of Science," in L. W. Sumner, J. G. Slater and F. Wilson (eds.) Pragmatism and Purpose:  Essays in Honour of T. A. Goudge (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980)


Explanation, Causation and Deduction (Dordrecht, Holland:  D. Reidel, 1985), pp. 385 + xviii

Reviews: Dialogue 27 (1988); Philosophy of Science, 54 (1987); Canadian Philosophical Reviews, 7 (1987); Estudios Bibliographicos de Filosofia, 7 (1986); Grazer Philosophische Studien, 29 (1987); International Studies in Philosophy, 1990


Laws and Other Worlds (Dordrecht, Holland:  D. Reidel, 1986), pp.328 + xv

Reviews: Dialgoue, 28, 1989; Canadian Philosophical Reviews, 7, 1987; Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 19, 1989

"The Lockean Revolution in the Theory of Science," in S. Tweyman and G. Moyal, eds., Early Modern Philosophy:  Epistemololgy, Metaphysics and Politics (New York:  Caravan Press, 1986), pp. 65-97


Psychological Analysis and the Philosophy of John Stuart Mill (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990), pp. 390 + ix

Reviews: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 28 (1992); Canadian Philosophical Reviews, 11-12 (1991-1992);


Empiricism and Darwin's Science (Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 1991), pp. 358 + xiv

Reviews: British Journal for the History of Science, 26 (1993), pp. 104-5; Annals of Human Biology, 20 (1993), pp. 83-84; Metascience, 2 (1992), pp. 82-85; Isis, 84 (1993), p. 424; Biology and Philosophy, 12 (1995), pp. 265-273; Dialogue, 34 (1991), pp. 176-178.


"Association, Ideas and Images in Hume," in P. Cummins and G. Zoeller, eds., Minds, Ideas and Objects (Atascadero, Calif.: Ridgeview Publishing Co., 1992), pp. 255-74


"Substance and Self in Locke and Hume," in Individuation and Identity in Early Modern Philosophy, ed. J. Gracia and K. Barber (Albany, New York: The State University of New York Press, 1994), pp. 155-200.

"The Rationalist Response to Aristotle in Descartes and Arnauld," in The Great Arnauld and Some of His Philosophical Contemporaries, ed. E. Kremer (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994), pp. 28-68.


"On the Hausmans' 'New Approach to Berkeley's Ideal Reality'," in R. Muehlmann, ed., Berkeley's Metaphysics: Structural, Interpretative, and Critical Essays (University Park, PA.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), pp. 67-87

Articles, "John Stuart Mill" and "Mill's Methods", in R. Audi, ed., The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (London: Cambridge University Press, (1995), pp. 493-96 and p.496-97


"Bradley and the Demise of Classical Psychology," in W. J. Mander, ed., Perspectives on the Logic and Metaphysics of F. H. Bradley (Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1996), pp. 177-222

"Moore's Refutation of Idealism," in P. Coates and D. Hutto, eds., Current Issues in Idealism (Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1996), pp. 23-58

"Bradley's Impact on Empiricism," in J. Bradley, ed., Philosophy after F. H. Bradley (Bristol:Thoemmes Press, 1996), pp. 251-82


Hume's Defence of Causal Inference (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), pp. 439 + xii

Reviews: Australasian Journal of Philosophy, v. 77 (1999), pp. 376-78; Review of Metaphysics, v. 54 (1999), 988-89; Journal of the History of Philosophy, v. 38 (2000), pp. 126-128; Dialogue, v. 39 (2000), pp. 404-407; British Journal for the History of Philosophy, v. 8 (2000), pp. 188-192

"Berkeley's Metaphysics and Ramist Logic," in P. Easton, ed., Logic and the Workings of the Mind, North American Kant Society Studies in Philosophy, vol. 5 (Atascadero, Calif.: Ridgeview), pp. 109-36.

"John Stuart Mill on Psychology and the Moral Sciences," in J. M. A. Skorupski, ed., Cambridge Companion to John Stuart Mill (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 203-254.

Reviews: Dialogue, 39 (2000), 141-146

Articles (1000 words each): Metaphysics (pp. 246-48), Existence (pp. 97-99), Concepts (pp. 73-75), Associationism (pp. 21-22), Bergmann (pp. 42-44), Neurath (pp. 275-77), Gödel (pp. 124-26), in D. Garrett, ed., Encyclopedia of Empiricism (London: Routledge)


"Árdal's Contribution to Philosophy," in Páll Árdal, Passions, Promises and Punishment (University of Iceland Press: Reykjavik, 1998), pp. 7-40


The Logic and Methodology of Science in Early Modern Thought: Seven Studies (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), pp. 608 + xxiv

Reviews: Philosophy in Review, 20 (2000), 447-449

Prize: Awarded the Canadian Philosophical Association/Broadview Press Book Prize, June 2003.


The Logic and Methodology of Science and Pseudoscience (Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press, 2000), pp. 364 + xv

Reviews: Philosophy in Review, 21 (2001), 300-302

"Wasted Time at University: Where Is It Going?" in David Nam, ed., On Higher Education: Thoughts and Reflections on the University Experience (Toronto: Students Administrative Council, University of Toronto, 2000), pp. 15-20


Socrates, Lucretius, Camus - Two Philosophical Traditions on Death (Lewiston NY and Queenston ON: Edwin Mellen Press, 2001), pp. 540

"John Stuart Mill," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. G. N. Zalta (Summer 2002 edition),, (Stanford, CA: The Metaphysics Research Institute, Center for Study of Language and Information, Stanford University, 2001)


"Herbert Spencer," Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol 262, British Philosophers, 1800-2000, ed. P. Dematteis, P. Fosl, and L. McHenry ("A Brucolli Clark Layman Book," Farmington, MI: Thomson Gale, 2002), pp. 252-265

"Hume's Treatise of Human Nature : A Genial Scepticism, an Ethical Naturalism," in J. Gracia et al., eds., The Classics of Western Philosophy: A Reader's Guide, (London: Routledge, 2003)


C. Books Edited


Ed. with L. W. Sumner and J. G. Slater, Pragmatism and Purpose:  Essays in Honour of T. A. Goudge, (Toronto:  University of Toronto Press, 1980)

Reviews: University of Toronto Bulletin, Oct. 8, 1991, p. 11; Ethics, July 1982, pp. 802-3; Canadian Book Review Annual, 1990, pp. 446-7; Transactions of the C. S. Peirce Society, 19 (1983), pp. 292-311; Semiotica, 43 (1983), pp. 367-70.


8. Non-Refereed Publications (a) Scholarly


Book Note on R. Bernstein, Praxis and Action, Choice, 9 (1972), p. 656

Book Note on J. Hebrand, Logical Writings, Choice, 9 (l972), p. 980


Book Note on American Heritage, Horizon Book of Makers of Modern Thought, Choice, 10 (l973), p. 72

Book Note on D.P. Henry, Mediaeval Logic and Metaphysics, Choice, 10 (l973), p. 474

Book Note on H. Ishiguro, Leibniz's Philosophy of Logic and Language, Choice, 10 (1973), p. 635


Book Note on W. Tartarkiewicz, Twentieth Century Philosophy, Choice, 10 (l974), p. 1932

Book Note on R. Grossmann, Ontological Reduction, Choice, 11 (1974), p. 452


Book Note on D.A. Hollinger, Morris R. Cohen and the Scientific Ideal, Choice, 13 (1976), p. 677

Book Note on J. Peterson, Realism and Logical Atomism, Choice, 13 (1976), p. 1307


Book Note on R. Ackermann, The Philosophy of Karl Popper, Choice, 13 (1977), p. 1612

Book Note on G. Vesey (ed.), Impressions of Empiricism, Choice, 14 (1977), p. 875

Book Note on A Flew, Thinking Straight, Choice, 14 (1977), p. 875

Book Note on G. Hallett, A Companion to Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, Choice, 14 (1977), p. 1075

Book Note on H. Reichenbach, Laws, Modalities and Counterfactuals, Choice, 14 (1977), p. 1076

Book Note on H. Finch, Wittgenstein, Choice, 14 (1977), p. 1377


Book Note on C. Delaney et al., The Synoptic Vision, Choice, 15 (1978), pp. 87-88

Book Note on J. Bronowski, The Origin of Knowledge and Imagination, Choice, 15 (1978), p. 846


Book Note on D. M. Armstrong, Universals and Scientific Realism, Choice, 16 (1979), pp. 89-90

Book Note on J.W. Danford, Wittgenstein and Political Philosophy, Choice, 16 (1979), 543

Book Note on H. Hochberg, Thought, Fact and Reference, Choice, 16 (1979), pp. 850-852


Book Note on V. Truchin, The Inertia of Fear and the Scientific Worldview, Choice, 18 (1981), p. 686

Book Note on G. Della Volpe, Logic as a Positive Science, Choice, 18 (1981), p. 324


Book Note on N. Rescher, Leibniz's Metaphysics of Nature, Choice, 19 (1982), pp. 247-248 

Book Note on P. Smith, Realism and The Progress of Science, Choice, 19 (1982), p. 293

Book Note on W. Newton-Smith, The Rationality of Science, Choice, 19 (1982), p. 302

Book Note on C.J.F. Williams, What Is Existence?, Choice, 19 (1982), p. 333


Book Note on G.J. Galgan, The Logic of Modernity, Choice, 20 (1983), pp. 319-320


Review of Jay Newman, Foundations of Religious Tolerance, CAUT Bulletin, 30 (1984), February, p. 62

Book Note on E. Mokrzycki, Philosophy of Science and Sociology, Ethics, 94 (l984), pp. 735-736

Book Note on G.W.F. Hegel, Hegel and the Human Spirit, a translation of the Jena Lectures on the Philosophy of spirit with commentary by L. Rauch, Choice, 21 (1984), pp. 257-258

Book Note on R. Grossmann, The Categorial Structure of the World, Choice, 21 (1984), p. 235


Review of F. Homer-Dixon and A.T. Perkins (eds.), Science in Society:  Its Freedom and Regulation, CAUT Bulletin, 30 (1983), February, p. 26


Review of E. Coombs (ed.), Modernity and Responsibility, CAUT Bulletin, 32 (1985), pp. 13-14

Book Note on A.W. Collins, Thought and Nature: Studies in Rationalist Philosophy, Choice, 23 (1986), p. 178

Book Note on T.A. Young, Completing Berkeley's Project:  Classical vs. Modern Philosophy, Choice, 23 (1986), pp. 200-201


"Digne's Gassendi," Bulletin of the Anglo-American Group of Provence, no. 89, May 1987, pp. 13-15


Book Note on Galen Strawson, Freedom and Belief, Choice, 25 (1988), January, p. 256

Book Note on J. Rouse, Knowledge aand Power, Choice, 25 (1988), p. 252

Book Note on H. Putnam, The Many Faces of Realism, Choice, 25 (1988), p. 304


Book Note on F. Will, Beyond Deduction: Ampliative Aspects of Philosophical Reflection, Choice, 26 (1989), March, p. 315

Book Note on S. Fuller, Social Epistemology, Choice, 26 (1989), May, p. 244

Book Note on P. A. Schouls, Descartes and the Enlightenment, Choice, 26 (1989), Sept. p. 328

Articles: L'Encyclopédie philosophique universelle, dir. André Jacob, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France), III, t.1 (1789-1889) T. H. Green, Introduction to Hume's Treatise of Human Nature; III, t. 2 (1889-1939) P. W. Bridgman, The Way Things Are; N. R. Campbell, The Foundations of Science; C. D. Broad, Indicution, Probability and Causation; (1939-1990) B. Aune, Knowledge, Mind and Nature; G. Bergmann, Metaphysics of Logical Positivism, Philosophy of Science, Logic and Reality; P. Butchvarov, The Concept of Knowledge; H. N. Castaneda, The Structure of Morality; R. Grossmann, Ontological Reduction; E. W. Hall., What Is Value?; N. R. Hanson, Patterns of discovery; M. B. Hesse, The Structure of Scientific Inference; H. H. Price, Thinking and Experience; W. C. Salmon, Foundations of Scientific Inference


"Editors' Note" (with R. Muehlmann), Hume Studies, 16 (1990), pp. v - vi.

Book Note on D. Sanford, If P, then Q: Conditionals and the Foundations of Reasoning, Choice, 27 (1990), March, p. 280

Book Note on F. J. Beckwith, David Hume's Argument against Miracles: A Critical Analysis, Choice, 28 (1990), May, p. 242

Book Note on N. Capaldi, Hume's Place in Moral Philosophy, Choice, 28 (1990), Sept., p. 277

Book Note on R. Kilvington, The Sophismata of Richard Kilvington, trans. and commentary by N. & B. Kretzmann, Choice, 28 (1990), Dec., p. 266

Book Note on D. Soloway, Education Lost, Interchange, 21 (1990), No. 3, p. 67.


Review of E. L. Boyer, Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate, CAUT Bulletin, 38, March 1991, p. 25.

Book Note on G. Brown, Strawson's Critique of Leibniz, Choice, 29 (1991), Jan., p. 240

Book Note on E. Pivcevic, Change and Selves, Choice, 29 (1991), March, p. 267

Book Note on A. Soble, The Structure of Love, Choice, 29 (1991), March, p. 271

Book Note on D. Pears, Hume's System: An Examiniation of the First Book of His Treatise, Choice, 29 (1991), September, p. 296.

Book Note on F. Snare, Morals, Motivation and Convention, Choice, 29 (1991), December, p. 270.


"A Tribute to John Davis (Editor's Note)," (with Robert Muehlmann), Hume Studies, 18 (1992), p. v.

Book Note on Michael Ayers, Locke: vol. 1: Epistemology; vol. 2: Ontology, Choice, May, 1992, p. 260.

Book Note on Francisco A. Rodriguez-Consuegra, The Mathematical Philosophy of Bertrand Russell: Origins and Development, Choice, September, 1992, p. 271.

Book Note on Arnold Koslow, A Structuralist Theory of Logic, Choice, December, 1992, p. 209.


"Editor's Note," (with Robert Muehlmann), Hume Studies, 19 (1993), pp. v-vi.

Book Note on Gustav Bergmann, New Foundations of Ontology, Choice, January, 1993, p. 242.

Book Note on A. R. Garciadiego Dantan, Bertrand Russell and the