Friedrich Nietzsche


Nietzsche Chronicle (including biography)
Nietzsche Yahoo!
Nietzsche Channel
Photo Galery: Nietzsche Channel
Nietzsche in Torino (Turin)
Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morality: John Protevi Essay 1 / Essay 2
Study Guide: Thus Spoke Zarathustra
The Gay Science: The Neitzsche Channel
The Will to Power: Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values
Understanding Nietzsche's “Will to Power” by Robert Cavalier
Birth of Tragedy
Untimely Meditations
Human, All-Too-Human
The Dawn
The Gay Science
Thus Spoke Zarathustra
Beyond Good and Evil
Twilight of Idols
The Anti-Christ
Ecce Homo
Various works
The Quantum Nietzsche, by William Plank
Friedrich Nietzsche Society
Perspectives of Nietzsche
Nietzsche: Sanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
On the Use and Abuse of History (Untimely Meditations)
(forward, I / II / III / IV / V / VI / VII / VIII / IX / X)
Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morality: Essay 1 / Essay 2
Journal of Nietzsche Studies


“ We are not subtle enough to perceive the probably absolute flow of becoming; the permanent exists only thanks to our coarse organs which summarize things and reduce them to common levels, when in fact nothing exists in that form. The tree is at each instant a new thing; we assert form because we do not grasp the subtlety of an absolute moment.”

“For what purpose humanity is there should not even concern us: why you are there, that you should ask yourself: and if you have no ready answer, then set for yourself goals, high and noble goals, and perish in pursuit of them! I know of no better life purpose than to perish in attempting the great and the impossible...” (unpublished note from 1873)

“Woe to you if homesickness for the land overcome you . . . when there is no longer any land!” (The Joyful Wisdom, para. 124).

“What have we done, in unchaining this earth from its sun? Whence is it rolling now? . . . Have we not thrown ourselves into a continuous fall? . . . Are we not straying as across an infinite nothingness? Do we not feel the breath of the void?” (The Joyful Wisdom)

The truth of language is but “a mobile army of metaphors, metonyms, and anthropomorphisms—in short, a sum of human relations, which have been enhanced, transposed, and embellished poetically and rhetorically, and which after long use seem firm, canonical, and obligatory to a people: truths are illusions about which one has forgotten that this is what they are” (“On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Sense,” in The Portable Nietzsche, ed. and Trans. Walter Kaufmann [1954] 46-7).

“Whoever fights monsters should see to it that in the process he does not become a monster. And when you look into an abyss, the abyss also looks into you.” (Beyond Good and Evil, 147)

“My dear friend, what is this our life? A boat that swims in the sea, and all one knows for certain about it is that one day it will capsize. Here we are, two good old boats that have been faithful neighbors, and above all your hand has done its best to keep me from ‘capsizing’! Let us then continue our voyage—each for the other’s sake, for a long time yet, a long time!” (Letter to Franz Overbeck, November 14, 1881)

“The world, as far as we can know it, is our own nervous activity, nothing more.” (KGW V-1.766)

“Finally we grasp it: a thing is a sum of excitatons in us: because we however are not firm solids, so too is a thing no firm sum.” (KGW V-1.767)

“Parmenides said ‘one cannot think that which is not"’ —we are at the other end and say ‘that which can be thought must surely be a fiction.’ Thought has no grip on the real, but rather only on — ” (KGW VIII-3, p. 124)

“All of these highest products of German art have been born so much out of the depths of the German spirit that they have become simultaneously the sharpest protest against the Jews. One can scarcely imagine anything more anti-Semitic than the Beethoven symphonies and Don Juan, Faust and Werther, the Meistersinger and Ring of the Nibelungen.”

“We want to inherit all ancient morality, not start again. All of our activity is only morality turning against the older forms.”

“We’re forced to be conquerors because we no longer have a country we want to remain in. A secret confidence impels us, confidence stronger than our negations. Our very strength doesn’t allow us to stay on this ancient soil.”

Nietzsche on traveling

“Where one must travel.—Direct self-observation does not by any means suffice for self-knowledge. We need history, inasmuch as the past wells up in us in hundreds of ways. Indeed we ourselves are nothing other than what we sense at each instant of that onward flow. For even when we wish to go down to the stream of our apparently ownmost, most personal essence, Heraclitus’s statement holds true: one does not step twice into the same river.—The maxim has by now grown stale; yet it is as nourishing and energizing as ever. So too is the maxim that in order to understand history one must search for the living remnants of historical epochs—and do so by traveling, as the venerable Herodotus traveled to sundry nations. . . . It is quite probable that the last three centuries, in all the hues and refracted colors of their civilization, live on, quite close to us: they only have to be discovered. . . . Most assuredly, in remote places, in rarely penetrated mountain valleys, self-contained communities manifesting a much older sensibility can be more readily preserved. That is where we have to go looking for them. . . . Whoever after long practice has become a hundred-eyed Argos in this art of traveling will finally rejoin his Io—I mean his ego—everywhere, and will rediscover the travel-adventure of this transformative and evolving ego in Egypt and Greece, Byzantium and Rome, France and Germany, in the periods of the migratory or the sedentary peoples, in the Renaissance and Reformation, in one's own homeland and abroad, and indeed in the sea, the vegetation, and the mountains.” (Human, All-Too-Human).

Engadine, Switzerland: “Of all the places on earth, I feel best here in the Engadine. To be sure, the attacks come to me here as they do everywhere else; yet they are milder by far, much more humane. I am continuously calmed here, none of the pressure that I feel everywhere else. Here all excessive stimulation ceases for me. I would beg of humankind, ‘Preserve for me but three or four months of summer in the Engadine, otherwise I really cannot bear life any longer.’ . . . Yet the Engadine summer is so short, and by September’s end I will return to Genoa. I have never had such tranquillity, and the paths, woods, lakes, and meadows are as though made for me; the prices are not altogether beyond my means. . . . The place is called Sils-Maria. Please keep the name a secret from my friends and acquaintances; I don't want any visitors.” (Letter to his sister Elisabeth, July 7, 1881)

Sils-Maria, Switzerland: “Now, my dear and good friend! The August sun shines over our heads, the year is fugitive, it grows quieter and more peaceful on the mountains and in the woods. Thoughts have been looming on my horizon the like of which I have never seen—I don't want to say a word about them, I want to preserve an unruffled calm in myself. It seems I shall have to live several years longer. Oh, my friend sometimes the realization runs through my head that I am actually living a supremely dangerous life: for I belong among those machines that can explode! The intensities of my feeling make me shudder and laugh aloud—already on several occasions I was unable to leave my room for the ridiculous reason that my eyes were inflamed—from what? On each occasion I had been weeping excessively during my hikes the day before; no, not sentimental tears, but tears of exultation; during which I sang and muttered nonsense, filled to the brim with my new vision, which I am the first of all human beings to have.” (Letter to Heinrich Köselitz, August 14, 1881)

Recoaro, Italy: “As far as landscape is concerned, Recoaro is one of my most beautiful experiences. I literally chased after its beauty, and expended a great deal of energy and enthusiasm on it. The beauty of nature, like every other kind of beauty, is quite jealous; it demands that one serve it alone.” (Letter to Heinrich Köselitz, June 23, 1881)

Zarathustra in Rapallo: “The following winter [1882-83] I lived near that charming, quiet bay that intervenes between Chiavari and the foothills of Portofino, the Bay of Rapallo [Tigullio], not far from Genoa. My health was not the best; the winter was cold and excessively rainy; a small albergo, fronting directly on the sea, a happenstance that made sleep impossible during the nights when the sea was high, in all respects offered the very opposite of everything my heart desired. Nevertheless, and well-nigh as evidence for my statement that everything decisive originates ‘despite all,’ it was during this winter and under these unfavorable circumstances that my Zarathustra came to be. In the morning I would ascend in a southerly direction along the splendid road that leads high up to Zoagli, a road that passes through pines and offers a view far out over the sea. In the afternoon, when my health permitted, I would walk around the entire Bay of Santa Margherita and over the hills all the way to the tip of Portofino. . . . On these two paths, the first entire part of Zarathustra, and above all the figure of Zarathustra himself as a type, came to me. Or, rather, he overcame me.” (Ecce Homo)

Nice: “I’ve tested Munich, Florence, Genoa—but nothing suits my old head like this Nice, minus a couple of months in Sils-Maria. At all events, I am told that the summer here is more refreshing than at any place in the interior of Germany (the evenings with sea breeze, the nights cool). The air is incomparable, the strength it gives one (and also the light that fills the sky) not to be found anywhere else in Europe. Finally I should mention that one can live here cheaply, very cheaply, and that the place is large enough in scope to permit every degree of concealment to a hermit. The altogether select things of nature, such as the forest paths on the closest hill, or on the St. Jean Peninsula, I have all to myself. Similarly the entire Promenade (about a forty-five minute walk) is splendidly free, inasmuch as people visit for only a few hours during the day. . . . One is so ‘un-German’ here: I can't emphasize that strongly enough” (Letter to Heinrich Köselitz, November 24, 1885)

Zarathustra in Nice: “The following winter [1883-84], under the halcyon skies of Nice, which glistened above me for the first time in my life, I discovered the third part of Zarathustra—and the book was finished. Scarcely a year for the composition of the whole. Many concealed spots and many heights in the landscape of Nice have become sacrosanct to me because of unforgettable moments there. That decisive part of the third book, ‘Of Old and New Tablets,’ was composed on the difficult and steep ascent from the railway station at Èze to the marvelous Moorish eagle’s nest overhead. My muscle tone was always greatest when my creative energies flowed most abundantly. The body is spirited—let us leave the ‘soul’ out of play. . . . One could often have spotted me dancing: at that time I could wander through the mountains for seven or eight hours at a time without tiring. I slept well. I laughed a lot—I was fit as I could be, and I was patient.” (Ecce Homo)

Ever-holier mountains: “I draw circles and sacred boundaries about me; fewer and fewer climb with me up higher and higher mountains.—I am building a mountain chain out of ever-holier mountains.” (“Of Old and New Tablets,” Thus Spoke Zarathustra)

“It is my fourth winter in this place, my seventh on this coast: that is the way my health wants it, for it is stupid as well as demanding, ready to make mischief as soon as the occasioning circumstances pile up. Nice and the Engadine: that is the circle dance this old nag cannot escape. . . . To be sure, there can be no more beautiful season in Nice than the current one: the sky blindingly white, the sea tropical blue, and in the night a moonlight that makes the gas lanterns feel ashamed, for they flush red. And here once again I perambulate, as so many times before, thinking my kinds of thoughts, ebon thoughts” (Letter to Malwida von Meysenbug, December 13, 1886)

Torino, Italy: “I have discovered Torino. . . . Torino is not a well-known city, is it? The educated German travels right on by it. Granted my hardness of heart in the face of everything that education commends, I have established Torino as my third residence, with Sils-Maria as the first and Nice as the second. Four months at each place: in the case of Torino it is two months in the spring and two in the fall. Odd! What convinces me is the air, the dry air which is the same in all three places, and for the same meteorological reasons: snow-capped mountains to the north and west. That is the calculation that has brought me here, and I am enchanted! Even on the very warm days—and we have had such already—that famous Zephyr blows, of which I had heard only the poets speak (without believing them: pack of liars!). The nights are cool. From the middle of the city you can see the snow.” (Letter to Reinhart von Seydlitz, May 13, 1888)

Torino, a city beyond good and evil: “This is a city I can use now! That is crystal clear to me, and it was so from the very first moment. . . . What a worthy and serious city! Not at all a metropolis, not at all modern, as I had feared: rather, it is city of seventeenth-century royalty, which has but one commanding taste in all things, that of the court and the nobles. Aristocratic tranquillity in everything has been preserved. There is no wretched faubourg. There is a unity of taste, down to the colors (the whole city is yellow or reddish brown). And for the feet as well as the eyes it is a classic spot! What safety, what sidewalks, not to mention the omnibus and the trams, which are miraculously arranged here! . . . What solemn and earnest piazzas! And the palaces are built without pretension, the streets clean and well made—everything far more dignified than I expected! The most beautiful cafés I've ever seen. These arcades are necessary here, given the changeable weather: yet they are spacious, not at all oppressive. Evenings on the bridge over the (river) Po: splendid! (“Beyond good and evil!” Nietzsche's Letters)

Nietzsche's Travels:

  • Krell, David Farrell and Donald L. Bates. The Good European: Nietzsche’s Work Sites in Word and Image. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997

German Abbreviations

GT Geburt der Tragödie
UBDS David Strauss
UBHL Vom Nutzen und Nachteil der Historie
UBSE Schopenhauer als Erzieher
UBRW Richard Wagner in Bayreuth
MAMI Menschliches, Allzumenschliches I
MAMII Menschliches, Allzumenschliches II
M Morgenröte
FW Fröhliche Wissenschaft
IM Idyllen aus Messina
Z Also sprach Zarathustra
JGB Jenseits von Gut und Böse
GM Zur Genealogie der Moral
EH Ecce Homo
GD Götzendämmerung
FWag Der Fall Wagner
AC Der Antichrist
DD Dionysis-Dithyramben
NcW Nietzsche contra Wagner

The following table summarizes the abbreviations used for individual titles of the unpublished work of Nietzsche's years in Basel:

GMD Zwei öffentliche Vorträge über die griechische
Tragödie. Erster Vortrag: Das griechische Musikdrama
ST Zwei öffentliche Vorträge über die griechische
Tragödie. Zweiter Vortrag: Socrates und die Tragoedie
DW Die dionysische Weltanschauung
GG Die Geburt des tragischen Gedankens
SGT Sokrates und die griechische Tragoedie
BA Ueber die Zukunft unserer Bildungsanstalten
CV Fünf Vorreden zu fünf ungeschriebenen Büchern
NJ Ein Neujahrswort an den Herausgebern der Wochenschrift „Im
neuen Reich”
PHG Die Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen
WL Ueber Wahrheit und Lüge im aussermoralischen Sinne
MD Mahnruf an die Deutschen
K Kritische Studienausgabe, Bd. 14
C Kritische Studienausgabe, Bd. 15

English Abbreviations

A = The Antichrist
AOM = Assorted Opinions and Maxims
BGE = Beyond Good and Evil
BT = The Birth of Tragedy
CW = The Case of Wagner
D = Daybreak / Dawn
DS = David Strauss, the Writer and the Confessor
EH = Ecce Homo ["Wise," "Clever," "Books," "Destiny"]
FEI = "On the Future of our Educational Institutions"
GM = On the Genealogy of Morals
GOA = Nietzsches Werke (Grossoktavausgabe)
GS = The Gay Science / Joyful Wisdom
HL = On the Use and Disadvantage of History for Life
HC = "Homer's Contest"
HCP = "Homer and Classical Philology"
HH = Human, All Too Human
KGB = Briefwechsel: Kritische Gesamtausgabe
KGW = Kritische Gesamtausgabe Werke
KSA = Kritische Studienausgabe
LR = "Lectures on Rhetoric"
MA = Nietzsches Gesammelte Werke (Musarionausgabe)
NCW = Nietzsche contra Wagner
PPP = Pre-Platonic Philosophers
PTA = Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks
RWB = Richard Wagner in Bayreuth
SE = Schopenhauer as Educator
TI = Twilight of the Idols ["Maxims," "Socrates," "Reason," "World," "Morality," "Errors," "Improvers," "Germans," "Skirmishes," "Ancients," "Hammer"]
TL = "On Truth and Lies in an Extra?moral Sense"
UM = Untimely Meditations / Thoughts Out of Season
WDB = Werke in drei Bänden (Ed. Karl Schlechta)
WP = The Will to Power
WPh = "We Philologists"
WS = The Wanderer and his Shadow
Z = Thus Spoke Zarathustra

Select Bibliography

  • Kritische Gesamtausgabe Briefwechsel. ed. G. Colli and M. Montinari, 24 vols. in 4 parts. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1975.
  • The Antichrist. Trans. Walter Kaufmann, in The Portable Nietzsche, ed. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Viking Press, 1968.
  • Beyond Good and Evil. Trans. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Random House, 1966.
  • The Birth of Tragedy. Trans. Walter Kaufmann, in The Birth of Tragedy and The Case of Wagner. New York: Random House, 1967.
  • The Case of Wagner. Trans. Walter Kaufmann, in The Birth of Tragedy and The Case of Wagner. New York: Random House, 1967.
  • Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality. Trans. R. J. Hollingdale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  • Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is. Trans. Walter Kaufmann, in On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo. New York: Random House, 1967.
  • The Gay Science, with a Prelude of Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs. tr. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Random House, 1974.
  • Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits. Trans. R. J. Hollingdale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Nietzsche Contra Wagner. Trans. Walter Kaufmann, in The Portable Nietzsche. New York: Viking Press, 1968.
  • On the Genealogy of Morals. Trans. Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale, in On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo. New York: Random House, 1967.
  • Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's. Trans. and ed. Daniel Breazeale. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1979.
  • Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. Trans. Marianne Cowan. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1962.
  • Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Trans. Walter Kaufmann, in The Portable Nietzsche. New York: Viking Press, 1968.
  • Twilight of the Idols. Trans. Walter Kaufmann, in The Portable Nietzsche. New York: Viking Press, 1968.
  • Untimely Meditations. Trans. R. J. Hollingdale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
  • The Will to Power. Trans. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Random House, 1967.

    GAG — First edition of Nietzsche’s works, by Köselitz, Gesamtausgabe Gast, 5 vols.

    GAK — Second edition of Nietzsche’s works, by Koegel, Gesammtausgabe Koegel, Division I: 8 vols; Division II: 4 vols., a subset of the Nachlaß [unpublished notes].

    GOA — Third edition of Nietzsche’s works, Großoktavausgabe.

    KGW — Kritische Gesamtausgabe Werke or paperback version, Kritische Studienausgabe (or KSA), edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari.

Biograpical Summary

1844, Nietzsche is born in Röcken near Leipzig, in the Prussian province of Saxony on October.

1846, Birth of Elisabeth Nietzsche, his sister

1849, Nietzsche’s father, a Lutheran minister dies of a brain tumor at the age of 36.

1864, Nietzsche enrolls as student of theology and philology at the University of Bonn.

1865, Continues his studies at the University of Leipzig, where he discovers the works of Schopenhauer in Rohm`s second-hand bookshop.

1866, Begins friendship with Erwin Rohde.

1868, Nietzsche meets Richard Wagner. Nietzsche’s devotion to Wagner lasts until the early 1880’s, when the two men have a bitter falling-out.

1869, Though he has not completed his doctorate, Nietzsche is appointed professor of Classical Philology at the University of Basel, Switzerland. Gives acceptance speech at the University of Basel on “Homer and Classical Philology.” Nietzsche taught at Basel from 1869-79, excluding a brief time in the military. During this time, Nietzsche was the younger colleague of Jacob Burckhardt and Franz Overbeck. His relationship with Overbeck solidified with the two becoming lifelong friends and associates.

1870, Becomes tenured professor at University of Basel. Nietzsche volunteers as a medical orderly and also serves briefly as a soldier with the Prussian forces in the Franco-Prussian war. Returns to Basel, and begins friendship with Franz Overbeck.

1872, January through mid-May: Basel. Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik [The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music] is published on January 2. Enthusiastic reception in Tribschen. After reading the book, Wagner remarks to Cosima: “that is the book I have always wished for myself”.

1872 Mid-May: Bayreuth. Together with Rohde and Gersdorff, Nietzsche attends the laying of the foundation stone of the theater in Bayreuth. Acquaintance with Malwida von Meysenbug (1816-1903), a close friend of Cosima, Wagner’s wife.

Rohde’s favorable review of Geburt der Tragödie appears on May 26. Four days later, Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Möllendorf publishes his harsh criticism of Nietzsche’s book, a 32 page pamphlet entitled Zukunftsphilologie! [Philology of the Future!]. Wilamowitz attacks Nietzsche’s book on strictly philological grounds, whereas Rhode recognizes and recommends the book as a philosophical work.

1878, Late April through end of July: Basel. In late April, Schmeitzner issues Nietzsche’s new book, Menschlisches, Allzumenschliches; Ein Buch für freie Geister. Dem Andenken Voltaires geweiht zur Gedächtnisfeier seines Todestages, den 30. Mai 1778 [Human, All Too Human; a Book for Free Spirits. Dedicated to the memory of Voltaire on the commemoration of the day of his death, 30 May 1778]. Cosima, like her husband Wagner, barely reads the book before rejecting it utterly.

1873, Nietzsche meets Paul Rée.

1873, Writes the fragment On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Sense. Publication of the first Untimely Meditation: David Strauss, the Confessor and the Writer. Finishes the second Untimely Meditation: On the Use and Abuse of History for Life

1874, Publication of On the Use and Abuse of History for Life. Publication of the third Untimely Meditation: Schopenhauer as Educator.

1875, Begins work on the fourth Untimely Meditation: Richard Wagner in Bayreuth

1876, Writes the first part of Human, All Too Human. Requests leave of absence from University of Basel (granted June 2, 1876). Nietzsche attends first Bayreuth Festival. Publication of the fourth Untimely Meditation: Richard Wagner in Bayreuth. Arrives in Naples. Last meeting with Wagner. Winter in Sorrento with Paul Rée, Malwida von Meysenbug and Nietzsche`s student, Albert Brenner.

1877, Leaves Sorrento. Requests extension of leave of absence from University of Basel.

1878, Requests extension of leave of absence from University of Basel. He spends the rest of his active life in Switzerland and Italy. Publication of Human, All Too Human (Nietzsche sends copy to Wagner; their last correspondence).

1880, Travels to Venice with Heinrich Kaselitz. In the same year, arrives in Genoa. Works on The Dawn.

1881, Early July through September: Sils-Maria, Switzerland. In early August, the revelation of eternal recurrence strikes Nietzsche. He recounts this event in his autobiography Ecce Homo, in the section on Zarathustra. Sends manuscript of The Dawn to Kaselitz. Leaves Sils-Maria for Genoa.

1882, Late June through August: Tautenburg. The first edition of Die fröhliche Wissenschaft [The Gay Science] contained the first four books of the later edition. With Köselitz’ assistance the correction of the page proofs begin. Nietzsche receives the first copies of Fröhliche Wissenschaft on August 20. The book was originally conceived as a continuation of Morgenröte, but in May 1882, Nietzsche decides to publish it as a separate work.

Leaves Sils-Maria for Genoa. Paul Rée visits Nietzsche in Genoa. They travel to Monte Carlo. Nietzsche stays in Rapallo. Nietzsche arrives in Sicily. Writes Idylls From Messina. On April 24, 1882 Nietzsche arrives in Rome.

1883. Mid-June to early September: Second residency in Sils-Maria. In the first half of July, Nietzche completes the second part of Zarathustra. In late August, after much delay, Schmeitzner issues the first part of Also Sprach Zarathustra.

January through late February: Rapallo
Nietzsche's tendency to swing between states of depression and high spirits illustrated at the outset of 1883: having concluded 1882 with severe depression, Nietzsche, enthused by several weeks of good health, completes a clean copy of the first part of Zarathustra.

1883. Richard Wagner dies on February 13. Nietzsche writes a letter of condolence to Cosima. In a letter to Malwida, first mention by Nietzsche of a “fatal insult” done to him by Wagner; it is unclear just what incident Nietzsche means. In the same letter, Nietzsche writes of Wagner: “It was hard, very hard, for six years to have to be the opponent of someone one has honored and loved as I have loved Wagner”.

May through mid-June: Rome. The book Also sprach Zarathustra. Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen [Thus Spoke Zarathustra. A Book for All and for None] finally is published. Nietzsche sends copies to Jacob Burckhardt, Karl Hillebrand and Gottfried Keller. Nov. 23, 1883 Nietzsche arrives in Nice.

1884, January through April 20: Nice. The second part of Also sprach Zarathustra appeared at the very beginning of 1884. In rapid succession the third part of Zarathustra appears in print. Nietzsche worked on this part from August 1883 through January 1884. April 21, 1884 Nietzsche leaves Nice for a seven-week visit in Venice.

1885. January to April 9: Nice. Completion of the fourth part of Zarathustra. Nietzsche, who loaned a portion of his savings to Schmeitzner in support of his publishing firm, is now in financial difficulty because Schmeitzner cannot repay the debt.

1886 Publication of Beyond Good and Evil.

1887, January through March: Nice. Page proofs for the preface of Fröhliche Wissenschaft [Gay Science] arrive. Late September through late October in Venice, Nietzsche and Heinrich Köselitz (aka Peter Gast) work together on the page proofs of Zur Genealogie der Moral [Toward a Genealogy of Morals].

1888, April and May: Torino (Turin) [Via Callo Alberto no. 6]. Nietzsche writes three of his most important works, Ecce Homo, Twilight of the Idols, and The Antichrist. Nietzsche gives up Nice as his traditional spring residence, citing the intensive brightness of the sun and the noise of the city. Decides instead to spend some months in Torino before heading to Sils-Maria, Switzerland. He finds the city agreeable. Completed work on the manuscript of Der Fall Wagner [The Case of Wagner]. Intensive work during this period, recorded in the Nachlasshefte [notebooks] W II 5 and W II 6.

End of August: Nietzsche decides to publish the material of Götzen-Dämmerung [Twilight of the Idols] separately, to be followed by a four volume work to be called Umwerthung aller Werthe [Revaluation of All Values]. For this latter work, Der Antichrist [The Antichrist] is to be the first volume.

In a letter to Köseltiz on Oct. 25, Nietzsche first mentions the autobiographical work Ecce Homo [Behold the Man] which he had begun in Torino (Turin) on his birthday (15 Oct.) (publ. posthumously April 1908). It is suggested that this work was withheld until after his death so that Elisabeth could publish excerpts as her own writings. The history of Ecce Homo is very complex and fraught with controversy. In the first days after Nietzsche’s collapse, Köselitz made a copy of the Nietzsche’s final manuscript. Köselitz apparently suppressed some passages; these passages are also missing in the printed manuscript. These were destroyed by Nietzsche’s sister and mother. The first edition of Ecce Homo Wie man wird, was man ist. [Ecce Homo. How one becomes who one is.] did not appear until 1908.

After seeing a coachman flogging a horse, Nietzsche rushes toward the horse and collapses with his arms around the horse’s neck. This collapse marks the outbreak of Nietzsche’s insanity. His madness, accompanied by physical paralysis, will last for the rest of his life. Most of his final years were spent in his sister Elisabeth’s care.

1889, Early January: Torino, 6 Jan. Jacob Burckhardt visits Overbeck, expressing concern over one of Nietzsche’s letters. Overbeck undertakes a trip to Torino and finds Nietzsche in the full grip of insanity, sitting on a sofa and reading the proofs for Nietzsche contra Wagner. He is brought to Basel and delivered to Wille’s clinic. Pn 13 Jan., Franziska Nietzsche arrives in Basel and stays at the Overbecks’ residence. On Jan. 17, Nietzsche is transferred to Binswanger’s clinic in Jena. He remains in the Jena clinic until 24 March 1890. Overbeck is clear about the finality of Nietzsche’s insanity, writing in a letter “Mit Nietzsche ist es aus!” [Nietzsche is finished!]

During this time, Elisabeth grew more and more involved in the burgeoning anti-semitic movements in Germany. While he wasted away, she collected and edited many of his scattered notes and tailored them to suit her own political agenda. The fruition of this was Nietzsche’s altered works and philosophy being a cornerstone in the Nazi party and Adolf Hitler’s personal mantra.

1890, January through mid-May: Jena
Early in the year, Nietzsche’s condition stabilizes and improves. Mid-May through December: Franziska rents a new set of rooms in Naumburg so that she can move Nietzsche out of the Jena institution entirely. On March 24, Franziska and Nietzsche move into these rooms; Nietzsche is never again put in institutionalized care. All goes well until May when one day Nietzsche wanders out of the house alone. After searching for several hours, Franziska finally finds him accompanied by a policeman. This incident causes Franziska to move Nietzsche back to her home in Naumburg on May 13.

1891, Naumburg. Early in the year, Nietzsche’s condition deteriorates. The gains made in early 1890 now begin gradually to fade.

1893, Naumburg. Nietzsche’s deterioration continues. Franziska reluctantly discontinues the two daily walks, up to this point an important part of their routine. A stiffness in the back and an aimless rubbing of his side marks the advance of Nietzsche’s paralysis.

1894, At the end of December the eight volume complete works, edited by Koegel (Gesammtausgabe, ed. F. Koegel or GAK) and dated 1895, appears.

1896, Naumburg. In January Rudolf Steiner undertakes his first official task at the Nietzsche Archive: the organization of Nietzsche’s library. Steiner organizes some 1,077 books and pamphlets into 19 categories, producing a catalog of 227 pages.

1897, Mid-July through December: Weimar
Death of Nietzsche’s mother. Elisabeth moves Nietzsche is from Naumburg to Weimar on July 17.

During the decade of Nietzsche’s incapacity, there were no fewer than three attempts to publish the complete works. The first, undertaken by Köselitz, was the Gesamtausgabe Gast [GAG]. This edition commenced in 1892 and ran through 1894. The GAG consisted of 5 volumes (Betrachtungen, Menschliches I & II, Zarathustra I-IV, Jenseits, and Genealogie der Moral). More than the other editors, Köselitz applied “corrections,” divided Menschliches into a new schema, and supplied titles to numerous aphorisms in Jenseits.

Next was Koegel’s edition (Gesammtausgabe Koegel or GAK), which ran from 1895 to 1897. The GAK consisted of two Abteilungen [divisions]. Division I had 8 volumes that spanned Nietzsche’s published books; division II had four volumes that published a subset of the Nachlaß [unpublished notes]. Koegel undertook many "reconstructions," utilizing not only the printing manuscripts but also reaching back to Nietzsche's earlier drafts. The third edition, the so-called Großoktavausgabe [GOA], commenced in 1899. It was largely done by 1913; only a index volume as added in 1926. The distribution of works in the GOA’s first division followed the GAG and GAK. The GOA’s second division was a greatly expanded (though still incomplete) compilation of the unpublished notes. It was here that the myth of the Will to Power “work” was initiated.

1900, Nietzsche dies in 25 August. Wiemar. Buried in Röcken, near Leipzig.

September 13: Overbeck visits Köselitz briefly in Weimar. In December he receives the first volume of Nietzsche’s correspondence as edited by Köselitz.

1901, Elisabeth publishes The Will to Power.