Targeting Fungal Membrane Homeostasis with Imidazopyrazoindoles Impairs Azole Resistance and Biofilm Formation. Revie, N. M., Iyer, K. R., Maxson, M. E., Zhang, J., Yan, S., Fernandes, C. M., Meyer, K. J., Chen, X., Skulska, I., Fogal, M., Sanchez, H., Hossain, S., Li, S., Yashiroda, Y., Hirano, H., Yoshida, M., Osada, H., Boone, C., Shapiro, R. S., Andes, D. R., Wright, G. D., Nodwell, J. R., Del Poeta, M., Burke, M. D., Whitesell, L., Robbins, N., and Cowen, L. E. Nature Communications. 2022. Jun 25;13(1):3634. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-31308-1.

Downregulation of Essential Genes in the Fungal Pathogen Candida auris. Iyer, K. R., Kim, S. H., Robbins, N., and Cowen, L. E. Methods in Molecular Biology. 2022. 2517:111-126. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2417-3_9.

Functional Analysis of the Candida albicans Kinome Reveals Hrr25 as a Regulator of Antifungal Susceptibility. Lee, Y., Liston, S. D., Lee, D., Robbins, N., and Cowen, L. E. iScience. 2022. May 18;25(6):104432. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2022.104432. eCollection 2022 Jun 17.

Antifungal Discovery. Robbins, N. and Cowen, L. E. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 2022. Aug 26;69:102198. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2022.102198. Online ahead of print.

Genomic Approaches to Antifungal Drug Target Identification and Validation. Robbins, N. and Cowen, L. E. Annual Reviews of Microbiology. 2022. Sep 8;76:369-388. doi: 10.1146/annurev-micro-041020-094524.

Inhibiting C-4 Methyl Sterol Oxidase with Novel Diazaborines to Target Fungal Plant Pathogens. Kim, S. H., Steere, L., Zhang, Y. K., McGregor, C., Hahne, C., Zhou, Y., Liu, C., Cai, Y., Zhou, H., Chen, X., Puumala, E., Duncan, D., Wright, G. D., Liu, C. T., Whitesell, L., and Cowen, L. E. ACS Chemical Biology. 2022. Jun 17;17(6):1343-1350. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.2c00257.

High-Throughput Chemical Screen Identifies a 2,5-Disubstituted Pyridine as an Inhibitor of Candida albicans Erg11. Du Bois, A. C., Xue, A., Pham, C., Revie, N. M., Meyer, K. J., Yashiroda, Y., Boone, C., Nodwell, J. R., Stogios, P., Savchenko, A., Robbins, N., Iyer, K. R., and Cowen, L. E. mSphere. 2022. Jun 29;7(3):e0007522. doi: 10.1128/msphere.00075-22.

Molecular Analysis and Essentiality of Aro1 Shikimate Biosynthesis Multi-enzyme in Candida albicans. Stogios, P. J., Liston, S. D., Semper, C., Quade, B., Michalska, K., Evdokimova, E., Ram, S., Otwinowski, Z., Borek, D., Cowen, L. E., and Savchenko, A. Life Science Alliance. 2022. May 5;5(8):e202101358. doi: 10.26508/lsa.202101358.

Antifungal Pipeline: Build It Strong; Build It Better! Perfect, J. R., Krysan, D. J., Del Poeta, M., Selmecki, A. M., Brown, J. C. S., and Cowen, L. E. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2022. Mar 16;12:881272. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.881272.

The Role of Candida albicans Stress Response Pathways in Antifungal Tolerance and Resistance. Iyer, K. R., Robbins, N., and Cowen, L. E. iScience. 2022. Feb 19;25(3):103953.

Bacterial-fungal Interactions and their Impact on Microbial Pathogenesis. MacAlpine, J., Robbins, N., and Cowen, L. E. Molecular Ecology. 2022. Mar 1. doi: 10.1111/mec.16411.

Exploring Space via Astromycology: A Report on the CIFAR Programs Earth 4D and Fungal Kingdom Inaugural Joint Meeting. Case, N. T., Song, M., Fulford, A. H., Graham, H. V., Orphan, V. J., Stajich, J. E., Casadevall, A., Mustard, J., Heitman, J., Lollar, B. S., and Cowen, L. E. Astrobiology. 2022. Jun;22(6):637-640. doi: 10.1089/ast.2021.0186.

Adaptive Laboratory Evolution in S. cerevisiae Highlights Role of Transcription Factors in Fungal Xenobiotic Resistance. Ottilie, S., Luth, M. R., Hellemann, E., Goldgof, G. M., Vigil, E., Kumar, P., Cheung, A. L., Song, M., Godinez-Macias, K. P., Carolino, K., Yang, J., Lopez, G., Abraham, M., Tarsio, M., LeBlanc, E., Whitesell, L., Schenken, J., Gunawan, F., Patel, R., Smith, J., Love, M. S., Williams, R. M., McNamara, C. W., Gerwick, W. H., Ideker, T., Suzuki, Y., Wirth, D. F., Lukens, A. K., Kane, P. M., Cowen, L. E., Durrant, J. D., and Winzeler, E. A. Communications Biology. 2022. Feb 11;5(1):128.

Genetic Analysis of Hsp90 Function in Cryptococcus neoformans Highlights Key Roles in Stress Tolerance and Virulence. Fu, C., Beattie, S. R., Jezewski, A. J., Robbins, N., Whitesell, L., Krysan, D. J., and Cowen, L. E. Genetics. 2022 Jan 4;220(1):iyab164. doi: 10.1093/genetics/iyab164.

Rieske Head Domain Dynamics and Indazole-derivative Inhibition of Candida albicans Complex III. Di Trani, J. M., Liu, Z., Whitesell, L., Brzezinski, P., Cowen, L. E., and Rubinstein, J. L. Structure. 2022. Jan 6;30(1):129-138.e4.


Antifungal Drug Resistance: Deciphering the Mechanisms Governing Multidrug Resistance in the Fungal Pathogen Candida glabrata. Robbins, N. and Cowen, L. E. Current Biology. 2021. Dec 6;31(23):R1520-R1523.

Leveraging Machine Learning Essentiality Predictions and Chemogenomic Interactions to Identify Antifungal Targets. Fu, C., Zhang, X., Veri, A. O., Iyer, K. R., Lash, E., Xue, A., Yan, H., Revie, N. M., Wong, C., Lin, Z. Y., Polvi, E. J., Liston, S. D., VanderSluis, B., Hou, J., Yashiroda, Y., Gingras, A. C., Boone, C., O'Meara, T. R., O'Meara, M. J., Noble, S., Robbins, N., Myers, C. L., and Cowen, L. E. Nature Communications. 2021. Nov 11;12(1):6497.

A Small Molecule Produced by Lactobacillus Species Blocks Candida albicans Filamentation by Inhibiting a DYRK1-family Kinase. MacAlpine, J., Daniel-Ivad, M., Liu, Z., Yano, J., Revie, N. M., Todd, R. T., Stogios, P. J., Sanchez, H., O'Meara, T. R., Tompkins, T. A., Savchenko, A., Selmecki, A., Veri, A. O., Andes, D. R., Fidel, P. L. Jr., Robbins, N., Nodwell, J., Whitesell, L., and Cowen, L. E. Nature Communications. 2021. Oct 22;12(1):6151.

A Functionally Divergent Intrinsically Disordered Region Underlying the Conservation of Stochastic Signaling. Hsu, I. S., Strome, B., Lash, E., Robbins, N., Cowen, L. E., and Moses, A. M. PLoS Genetics. 2021. Sep 10;17(9):e1009629.

The Macrophage-derived Protein PTMA Induces Filamentation of the Human Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans. Case NT, Duah K, Larsen B, Wong CJ, Gingras AC, O'Meara TR, Robbins N, Veri AO, Whitesell L, and Cowen LE. Cell Reports. 2021. Aug 24;36(8):109584.

Mitochondrial perturbation reduces susceptibility to xenobiotics through altered efflux in Candida albicans. Hossain, S., Veri, A. O., Liu, Z., Iyer, K. R., O'Meara, T. R., Robbins, N., and Cowen, LE. Genetics. 2021. Jun 18:iyab095. doi: 10.1093/genetics/iyab095. Online ahead of print.

Glycosylated Polyene Macrolides Kill Fungi via a Conserved Sterol Sponge Mechanism of Action. Revie, N. M. and Cowen, L. E. ACS Central Science. 2021. May 26;7(5):706-708.

Exploring Boron Applications in Modern Agriculture: A Structure-activity Relationship Study of a Novel Series of Multi-substitution Benzoxaboroles for Identification of Potential Fungicides. Liu, C., Steere, L., McGregor, C., Frederick, B. H., Pastoor, T., Zhou, Y., Liu, C. T., Cai, Y., Zhou, H., Xu, M., Wang, J., Kim, S. H., Whitesell, L., Cowen, L. E., and Zhang, Y. K. Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2021. Jul 1;43:128089.

Treatment Strategies for Cryptococcal Infection: Challenges, Advances and Future Outlook. Iyer, K. R., Revie, N. M., Fu, C., Robbins, N., and Cowen, L. E. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2021. 8:1-13.

Functional Connections Between Cell Cycle and Proteostasis in the Regulation of Candida albicans Morphogenesis. Hossain, S., Lash, E., Veri, A. O., and Cowen, L. E. Cell Reports. 2021. 34(8):108781.

Fungal-Selective Resorcylate Aminopyrazole Hsp90 Inhibitors: Optimization of Whole-Cell Anticryptococcal Activity and Insights into the Structural Origins of Cryptococcal Selectivity. Marcyk, P. T., LeBlanc, E. V., Kuntz, D. A., Xue, A., Ortiz, F., Trilles, R., Bengtson, S., Kenney, T. M. G., Huang, D. S., Robbins, N., Williams, N. S., Krysan, D. J., Privé, G. G., Whitesell, L., Cowen, L. E., and Brown, L. E. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2021. 64(2):1139-1169.

Showcasing Fungal Genetics & Genomics with the Genetics Society of America. Cowen, L. E. and Heitman, J. Genetics. 2021. 217(2):iyaa034.

Showcasing Fungal Genetics & Genomics with the Genetics Society of America. Cowen, L. E. and Heitman, J. G3. 2021. 11(2):jkaa041.

Fluorescence Polarization-Based Measurement of Protein-Ligand Interaction in Fungal Cell Lysates. LeBlanc E. V., Shekhar-Guturja T., Whitesell L., and Cowen L. E. Current Protocols. 2021. 1(1):e17.

The Canadian Fungal Research Network: Current Challenges and Future Opportunities. Horianopoulos LC, Gluck-Thaler E, Benoit Gelber I, Cowen LE, Geddes-McAlister J, Landry CR, Schwartz IS, Scott JA, Sellam A, Sheppard DC, Spribille T, Subramaniam R, Walker AK, Harris SD, Shapiro RS, Gerstein A. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 2021. 67(1):13-22.


An Oxindole Efflux Inhibitor Potentiates Azoles and Impairs Virulence in the Fungal Pathogen Candida auris. Iyer, K. R., Camara, K., Daniel-Ivad, M., Trilles, R., Pimentel-Elardo, S. M., Fossen, J. L., Marchillo, K., Liu, Z., Singh, S., Muñoz, J. F., Kim, S. H., Porco, J. A. Jr., Cuomo, C. A., Williams, N. S., Ibrahim, A. S., Edwards, J. E. Jr., Andes, D. R., Nodwell, J. R., Brown, L. E., Whitesell, L., Robbins, N., and Cowen L. E. Nature Communications. 2020. 11(1):6429.

Drugs from Bugs in Creatures of the Sea. Cowen LE. Science. 2020. 370(6519):906-907.

Structure-guided Approaches to Targeting Stress Responses in Human Fungal Pathogens. LeBlanc, E. V., Polvi, E. J., Veri, A. O., Privé, G. G., and Cowen, L. E. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2020. 295(42):14458-14472.

Flow Cytometric Measurement of Efflux in Candida Species. Iyer, K. R., Robbins, N., and Cowen, L. E. Current Protocols in Microbiology. 2020. 59(1):e121.

Advances in Fungal Chemical Genomics for the Discovery of New Antifungal Agents. Xue, A., Robbins, N., and Cowen, L. E. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2020. doi: 10.1111/nyas.14484. Online ahead of print.

Antifungal Activity of Gepinacin-scaffold GPI Anchor Biosynthesis Inhibitors with Improved Metabolic Stability. Liston SD, Whitesell L, McLellan CA, Mazitschek R, Petraitis V, Petraitiene R, Kavaliauskas P, Walsh TJ, Cowen LE. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy. 2020. 64(10):e00899-20.

Inhibiting Protein Prenylation with Benzoxaboroles to Target Fungal Plant Pathogens. Kim SH, Liu C, Zhou Y, Zhang YK, McGregor C, Steere L, Frederick BH, Liu CT, Whitesell L, Cowen LE. ACS Chemical Biology. 2020. Jul 17;15(7):1930-1941.

The Rise of Fungi: A Report on the CIFAR Program Fungal Kingdom: Threats & Opportunities Inaugural Meeting. Case NT, Heitman J, Cowen LE. G3. 2020. Jun 1;10(6):1837-1842.

Antifungal Drug Resistance: Molecular Mechanisms in Candida albicans and Beyond. Lee Y, Puumala E, Robbins N, Cowen LE. Chemical Reviews. 2020. May 22. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c00199. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32441527.

Threats Posed by the Fungal Kingdom to Humans, Wildlife, and Agriculture. Fisher MC, Gurr SJ, Cuomo CA, Blehert DS, Jin H, Stukenbrock EH, Stajich JE, Kahmann R, Boone C, Denning DW, Gow NAR, Klein BS, Kronstad JW, Sheppard DC, Taylor JW, Wright GD, Heitman J, Casadevall A, Cowen LE. mBio. 2020. May 5;11(3):e00449-20.

The Proteasome Governs Fungal Morphogenesis via Functional Connections with Hsp90 and cAMP-Protein Kinase A Signaling. Hossain S, Veri AO, Cowen LE. mBio. 2020. Apr 21;11(2):e00290-20.

Enhanced Efflux Pump Expression in Candida Mutants Results in Decreased Manogepix Susceptibility. Liston SD, Whitesell L, Kapoor M, Shaw KJ, Cowen LE. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy. 2020. Apr 21;64(5):e00261-20.

Oxadiazole-Containing Macrocyclic Peptides Potentiate Azole Activity against Pathogenic Candida Species. Revie NM, Robbins N, Whitesell L, Frost JR, Appavoo SD, Yudin AK, Cowen LE. mSphere. 2020. Apr 8;5(2):e00256-20.

Translation Inhibition by Rocaglates Activates a Species-Specific Cell Death Program in the Emerging Fungal Pathogen Candida auris. Iyer KR, Whitesell L, Porco JA Jr, Henkel T, Brown LE, Robbins N, Cowen LE. mBio. 2020. Mar 10;11(2):e03329-19.

Overcoming Fungal Echinocandin Resistance through Inhibition of the Non-essential Stress Kinase Yck2. Caplan T, Lorente-Macías Á, Stogios PJ, Evdokimova E, Hyde S, Wellington MA, Liston S, Iyer KR, Puumala E, Shekhar-Guturja T, Robbins N, Savchenko A, Krysan DJ, Whitesell L, Zuercher WJ, Cowen LE. Cell Chemical Biology. 2020. Mar 19;27(3):269-282.e5.

Design and Synthesis of Fungal-Selective Resorcylate Aminopyrazole Hsp90 Inhibitors. Huang DS, LeBlanc EV, Shekhar-Guturja T, Robbins N, Krysan DJ, Pizarro J, Whitesell L, Cowen LE, Brown LE. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2020. Mar 12;63(5):2139-2180.


Global Proteomic Analyses Define an Environmentally Contingent Hsp90 Interactome and Reveal Chaperone-dependent Regulation of Stress Granule Proteins and the R2TP Complex in a Fungal Pathogen. O'Meara TR, O'Meara MJ, Polvi EJ, Pourhaghighi MR, Liston SD, Lin ZY, Veri AO, Emili A, Gingras AC, Cowen LE. PLoS Biology 2019 Jul 8;17(7):e3000358.

Structural Basis for Species-selective Targeting of Hsp90 in Pathogenic Fungus. Whitesell L, Robbins N, Huang DS, McLellan CA, Shekhar-Guturja T, LeBlanc EV, Nation CS, Hui R, Hutchinson A, Collins C, Chatterjee S, Trilles R, Xie JL, Krysan DJ, Lindquist S, Porco JA Jr, Tatu U, Brown LE, Pizarro J, Cowen LE. Nature Communications 2019 10(1):402.

Genetic Analysis of Candida auris Implicates Hsp90 in Morphogenesis and Azole Tolerance and Cdr1 in Azole Resistance. Kim SH, Iyer KR, Pardeshi L, Muñoz JF, Robbins N, Cuomo CA, Wong KH, Cowen LE. MBio 2019 10(1). pii: e02529-18.

Functional Divergence of a Global Regulatory Complex Governing Fungal Filamentation. Polvi EJ, Veri AO, Liu Z, Hossain S, Hyde S, Kim SH, Tebbji F, Sellam A, Todd RT, Xie JL, Lin ZY, Wong CJ, Shapiro RS, Whiteway M, Robbins N, Gingras AC, Selmecki A, Cowen LE. PLoS Genetics 2019 15(1):e1007901.

Electron Cryomicroscopy Observation of Acyl Carrier Protein Translocation in Type I Fungal Fatty Acid Synthase. Lou JW, Iyer KR, Hasan SMN, Cowen LE, Mazhab-Jafari MT. Scientific Reports 2019 Sep 10;9(1):12987.

Environment-induced Same-sex Mating in the yeast Candida albicans Through the Hsf1-Hsp90 Pathway. Guan G, Tao L, Yue H, Liang W, Gong J, Bing J, Zheng Q, Veri AO, Fan S, Robbins N, Cowen LE, Huang G. PLoS Biology 2019 17(3):e2006966.

Protein-Protein Interaction Profiling in Candida albicans Revealed by Biochemical Purification-Mass Spectrometry (BP/MS). Pourhaghighi R, O'Meara TR, Cowen LE, Emili A. Methods in Molecular Biology 2019;2049:203-211.


High-Throughput Screening Identifies Genes Required for Candida albicans Induction of Macrophage Pyroptosis. O'Meara TR, Duah K, Guo CX, Maxson ME, Gaudet RG, Koselny K, Wellington M, Powers ME, MacAlpine J, O'Meara MJ, Veri AO, Grinstein S, Noble SM, Krysan D, Gray-Owen SD, Cowen LE. MBio 2018 Aug 21;9(4). pii: e01581-18.

Tuning Hsf1 Levels Drives Distinct Fungal Morphogenetic Programs with Depletion Impairing Hsp90 Function and Overexpression Expanding the Target Space. Veri AO, Miao Z, Shapiro RS, Tebbji F, O'Meara TR, Kim SH, Colazo J, Tan K, Vyas VK, Whiteway M, Robbins N, Wong KH, Cowen LE. PLoS Genetics 2018 14(3):e1007270.

Global Analysis of Genetic Circuitry and Adaptive Mechanisms Enabling Resistance to the Azole Antifungal Drugs. Mount HO, Revie NM, Todd RT, Anstett K, Collins C, Costanzo M, Boone C, Robbins N, Selmecki A, Cowen LE. PLoS Genetics 2018 Apr 27;14(4):e1007319.

Functional Genomic Screening Reveals Core Modulators of Echinocandin Stress Responses in Candida albicans. Caplan T, Polvi EJ, Xie JL, Buckhalter S, Leach MD, Robbins N, Cowen LE. Cell Reports 2018 23(8):2292-2298.

Integrin-Based Diffusion Barrier Separates Membrane Domains Enabling the Formation of Microbiostatic Frustrated Phagosomes. Maxson ME, Naj X, O'Meara TR, Plumb JD, Cowen LE, Grinstein S. Elife 2018 Mar 19;7. pii: e34798. doi: 10.7554/eLife.34798.

Antifungal Drug Resistance: Evolution, Mechanisms and Impact. Revie NM, Iyer KR, Robbins N, Cowen LE. Current Opinion in Microbiology 2018 45:70-76.

Insights into the Host-Pathogen Interaction: C. albicans Manipulation of Macrophage Pyroptosis. O'Meara TR, Cowen LE. Microbial Cell 2018 Nov 12;5(12):566-568.

Regulation of the Heat Shock Transcription Factor Hsf1 in Fungi: Implications for Temperature-Dependent Virulence Traits. Veri AO, Robbins N, Cowen LE. FEMS Yeast Research 2018 18(5). doi: 10.1093/femsyr/foy041.

Methodologies for in vitro and in vivo Evaluation of Efficacy of Antifungal and Antibiofilm Agents and Surface Coatings Against Fungal Biofilms. Van Dijck P, Sjollema J, Cammue BP, Lagrou K, Berman J, d'Enfert C, Andes DR, Arendrup MC, Brakhage AA, Calderone R, Cantón E, Coenye T, Cos P, Cowen LE, Edgerton M, Espinel-Ingroff A, Filler SG, Ghannoum M, Gow NAR, Haas H, Jabra-Rizk MA, Johnson EM, Lockhart SR, Lopez-Ribot JL, Maertens J, Munro CA, Nett JE, Nobile CJ, Pfaller MA, Ramage G, Sanglard D, Sanguinetti M, Spriet I, Verweij PE, Warris A, Wauters J, Yeaman MR, Zaat SAJ, Thevissen K. Microbial Cell 2018 5(7):300-326. doi: 10.15698/mic2018.07.638. Review.


Dephosphorylation of the Transcription Factor Cas5 by the Protein Phosphatase Glc7 Couples Cellular Stress Response, Drug Resistance, and Cell Cycle Progression in Candida albicans. Xie JL, Qin L, Miao Z, Grys B, De La Cruz J, Ting K, Krieger JR, Tong J, Tan K, Leach MD, Ketela T, Moran MF, Krysan D, Boone C, Andrews B, Selmecki A, Wong KH, Robbins N, and Cowen LE. 2017. Nature Communications 8:499.

Extensive Functional Redundancy in the Regulation of Candida albicans Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis by Lysine Deacetylases Hos2, Hda1, Rpd3 and Rpd31. Li X, Robbins N, O'Meara TR, Cowen LE. 2017. Molecular Microbiology 103:635-656.

Ydj1 Governs Fungal Morphogenesis and Stress Response, and Facilitates Mitochondrial Protein Import via Mas1 and Mas2. Xie JL, Bohovych I, Wong EOY, Lambert JP, Gingras AC, Khalimonchuk O, Cowen LE, Leach MD. 2017. Microbial Cell 4(10):342-361. doi: 10.15698/mic2017.10.594.

Staurosporine Induces Filamentation in the Human Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans via Signaling through Cyr1 and Protein Kinase A. Xie JL, O'Meara TR, Polvi EJ, Robbins N, Cowen LE. 2017. mSphere 2(2). pii: e00056-17. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00056-17.

Stress Adaptation. Brown AJP, Cowen LE, di Pietro A, Quinn J. 2017. Microbiol Spectrum 5(4). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0048-2016.

The Hsp90 Chaperone Network Modulates Candida Virulence Traits. O'Meara TR, Robbins N, Cowen LE. 2017. Trends in Microbiology pii: S0966-842X(17)30113-0. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.003.

Molecular Evolution of Antifungal Drug Resistance. Robbins N, Caplan T, Cowen LE. 2017 Annual Review of Microbiology. 71:753-775.


Signaling through Lrg1, Rho1 and Pkc1 Governs Candida albicans Morphogenesis in Response to Diverse Cues. Xie, J.L., Grahl, N., Sless, T., Leach, M.D., Kim, S.H., Hogan, D.A., Robbins, N., and Cowen, L. E. 2016. PLoS Genetics 12:e1006405.

Functional Genomic Analysis of Candida albicans Adherence Reveals a Key Role for the Arp2/3 Complex in Cell Wall Remodelling and Biofilm Formation. Lee JA, Robbins N, Xie JL, Ketela T, Cowen LE. 2016. PLoS Genetics 12:e1006452.

Metal Chelation as a Powerful Strategy to Probe Cellular Circuitry Governing Fungal Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis. Polvi, E.J., Averette, A.F., Lee, S.C., Kim, T., Bahn, Y.S., Veri, A.O., Robbins, N., Heitman, J., and Cowen, L.E. 2016. PLoS Genetics 12:e1006350.

Dual Action Antifungal Small Molecule Modulates Multidrug Efflux and TOR Signaling. Shekhar-Guturja, T., Gunaherath, G.M., Wijeratne, E.M., Lambert, J.P., Averette, A.F., Lee, S.C., Kim, T., Bahn, Y.S., Tripodi, F., Ammar, R., Döhl, K., Niewola-Staszkowska, K., Schmitt, L., Loewith, R.J., Roth, F.P., Sanglard, D., Andes, D., Nislow, C., Coccetti, P., Gingras, A.C., Heitman, J., Gunatilaka, A.A., and Cowen, L.E. 2016. Nature Chemical Biology 12:867-75.

Mapping the Hsp90 Genetic Network Reveals Ergosterol Biosynthesis and Phosphatidylinositol-4-Kinase Signaling as Core Circuitry Governing Cellular Stress. O'Meara, T.R., Veri, A.O., Polvi, E.J., Li, X., Valaei, S.F., Diezmann, S., and Cowen, L.E. 2016. PLoS Genetics 12:e1006142.

Hsf1 and Hsp90 Orchestrate Temperature-Dependent Global Transcriptional Remodelling and Chromatin Architecture in Candida albicans. Leach, M. D., Farrer, R. A., Tan, K., Miao, Z., Walker, L. A., Cuomo, C.A., Wheeler, R. T., Brown, A. J. P., Wong, K. H., Cowen, L. E. 2016. Nature Communications 7:11704.

Antifungal Drugs: The Current Armamentarium and Development of New Agents. Robbins, N., Wright, G.D., and Cowen, L.E. Microbiology Spectrum 2016. 4(5). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0002-2016.

Beauvericin Potentiates Azole Activity via Inhibition of Multidrug Efflux, Blocks C. albicans Morphogenesis, and is Effluxed via Yor1 and Circuitry Controlled by Zcf29. Shekhar-Guturja, T., Tebung, W.A., Mount, H., Liu, N., Köhler, J.R., Whiteway, M., and Cowen, L.E. 2016. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy Oct 10. pii: AAC.01959-16.

Candida albicans Is Resistant to Polyglutamine Aggregation and Toxicity. Leach, M.D., Kim, T., DiGregorio, S., Collins, C., Zhang, Z., Duennwald, M.L., and Cowen, L.E. 2016. G3 Nov 2. pii: g3.116.035675. doi: 10.1534/g3.116.035675.


Global Analysis of the Fungal Microbiome in Cystic Fibrosis Patients Reveals Loss of Function of the Transcriptional Repressor Nrg1 as a Mechanism of Pathogen Adaptation. Kim, S. H., Clark, S. T., Surendra, A., Copeland, J., Wang, P., Ammar, R., Collins, C., Tullis, D. E., Nislow, C., Hwang, D. M., Guttman, D. S., and Cowen, L. E. 2015. PLoS Pathogens 11(11):e1005308.

Functional Divergence of Hsp90 Genetic Interactions in Biofilm and Planktonic Cellular States. Diezmann, S.*, Leach, M. D.*, and Cowen, L. E. 2015. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0137947.

Global Analysis of Fungal Morphology Exposes Mechanisms of Host Cell Escape. O'Meara, T. R.*, Veri, A.*, Ketela, T., Jiang, B., Roemer, T., and Cowen, L. E. 2015. Nature Communications 6:6741.

Fitness Trade-Offs Associated with the Evolution of Resistance to Antifungal Drug Combinations. Hill, J. A., O’Meara, T. R., and Cowen, L. E. 2015. Cell Reports 10:809-19.
See accompanying Highlight in
Nature Reviews Microbiology 13: doi:10.1038 (2015).

Opportunistic Yeast Pathogens: Reservoirs, Virulence Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Strategies. Polvi, E. J.*, Li, X.*, O'Meara, T. R., Leach, M. D., Cowen, L. E. 2015. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25700837.

Using Combination Therapy to Thwart Drug Resistance. Hill, J. A. and Cowen, L. E. 2015. Future Microbiology 10:1719-26.

Drug Combinations as a Strategy to Potentiate Existing Antifungal Compounds. In Antifungals: From Genomics to Resistance and the Development of Novel Agents. Sanglard, D. and Cowen, L. E. 2015. Edited by: Alix T. Coste and Patrick Vandeputte. Horizon Caister Academic Press. Linton, UK.


Membrane Fluidity and Temperature Sensing are Coupled via Circuitry Comprised of Ole1, Rsp5, and Hsf1 in Candida albicans. Leach, M.D. and Cowen LE. 2014. Eukaryotic Cell 13(8):1077-84.

Hsp90-dependent Regulatory Circuitry Controlling Temperature-dependent Fungal Development and Virulence. O'Meara, T. R., and Cowen, L. E. 2014. Cellular Microbiology 16(4):473-81.

Mechanisms of Antifungal Drug Resistance. Cowen, L. E., Sanglard, D., Howard, S. J., Rogers, P. D., and Perlin, D. S. 2014. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a019752. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 25384768.

Elucidating Drug Resistance in Human Fungal Pathogens. Xie, J. L.*, Polvi, E. J.*, Shekhar-Guturja, T.*, Cowen, L. E. 2014. Future Microbiology 9:523-42.

Progress and Prospects for Targeting Hsp90 to Treat Fungal Infections. Veri, A. and Cowen, L. E. 2014. Parasitology 141(9):1127-37.

To Sense of Die: Mechanisms of Temperature Sensing in Fungal Pathogens. Leach, M. D. and Cowen, L. E. 2014. Current Fungal Infection Reports 8:185-191.

Microevolution of Antifungal Drug Resistance. Cowen, L. E. 2014. In Handbook of Antimicrobial Resistance. Edited by Matthias Gotte, Albert Berghuis, Greg Matlashewski, Mark Wainberg and Donald Sheppard. Springer. New York.


Genetic and Genomic Architecture of the Evolution of Resistance to Antifungal Drug Combinations. Hill, J. A., Ammar, R., Torti, D., Nislow, C., and Cowen L. E. 2013. PLoS Genetics 9(4): e1003390.

The Fungal Achilles' Heel: Targeting Hsp90 to Cripple Fungal Pathogens. Cowen, L. E. 2013. Current Opinion in Microbiology doi:pii: S1369-5274(13)00037-4. Epub ahead of print.

Surviving the Heat of the Moment: a Fungal Pathogens Perspective. Leach, M. D. and Cowen, L. E. 2013. PLoS Pathogens 9(3):e1003163.

The Candida albicans Hsp90 Chaperone Network is Environmentally Flexible and Evolutionarily Divergent. Diezmann, S. and Cowen, L. E. 2013. In The Molecular Chaperones Interaction Networks in Protein Folding and Degradation. Edited by W. Houry. Springer. Baton Rouge, LA, USA. P. 185-204.


Hsp90 Coordinates Short Term Transcriptional Regulation of Hsf1 and Longer Term Cell Wall Remodelling by MAP Kinase Signalling During Thermal Adaptation in a Pathogenic Yeast. Leach, M. D., Budge, S., Walker, L., Munro, C., Cowen, L. E., and Brown, A. J. P. 2012. PLoS Pathogens 8(12): e1003069.

Global Gene Deletion Analysis Exploring Yeast Filamentous Growth. Ryan, O.,# Shapiro, R. S.,# Kurat, C. F., Mayhew, D., Baryshnikova, A., Chin, B., Lin, Z.-Y., Cox,, M., Vizeacoumar, F., Cheung, D., Bahr, S., Tsui, K., Tebbji, F., Sellam, A., Istel, F., Schwarzmuller, Reynolds, T. B., Kuchler, K., Gifford, D. K., Whiteway, M., Giaever, G., Nislow, C., Costanzo, M., Gingras, A.-C., Mitra, R. D., Andrews, B., Fink, G. R.,* Cowen, L. E.,* and Boone, C.* 2012. Science 337: 1353-6. #Co-first author. *Co-corresponding author.

Lysine Deacetylases Hda1 and Rpd3 Regulate Hsp90 Function Thereby Governing Fungal Drug Resistance. Robbins, N., Leach, M. D., and Cowen L. E. 2012. Cell Reports 2:878-88.

Regulatory Circuitry Governing Morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. Shapiro, R. S., Ryan, O., Boone, C., and Cowen, L. E. 2012. Cell Cycle 11(23):4294-5.

Sgt1 Governs Candida albicans Morphogenesis via the Adenylyl Cyclase Cyr1 and Drug Resistance via Calcineurin Signaling. Shapiro, R. S., Zaas, A. K., Betancourt-Quiroz, M., Perfect, J. R., and Cowen L. E. PLoS ONE 7(9):e44734.

Thermal Control of Microbial Development and Virulence: Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Temperature Sensing. Shapiro, R. S. and Cowen, L. E. 2012. mBio 3(5). doi:pii: e00238-12.

Fungal Hsp90 – A Biological Transistor that Tunes Cellular Outputs to Thermal Inputs. Leach, M. D., Klipp, E., Cowen, L. E., and Brown, A. J. P. 2012. Nature Reviews Microbiology 10: 693-704.

A Novel Calcineurin-Independent Activity of Cyclosporin A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Singh-Babak, S. D., Shekhar, T., Smith, A. M., Giaever, G., Nislow, C., and Cowen, L. E. 2012. Molecular Biosystems 8(10):2575-84.

Global Analysis of the Evolution and Mechanism of Echinocandin Resistance in Candida glabrata. Singh-Babak, S. D., Babak, T., Diezmann, S., Hill, J. A., Xie, J. L., Chen, Y.-L., Poutanen, S. M., Rennie, R. P., Heitman, J., and Cowen,, L. E. 2012. PLoS Pathogens 8(5): e1002718.

Pho85, Pcl1 and Hms1 Signaling Governs Candida albicans Morphogenesis Induced by High Temperature or Hsp90 Compromise. Shapiro, R. S., Sellam, A., Tebbji, F., *Whiteway, M., *Nantel, A., and Cowen, L. E. 2012. Current Biology 22(6): 461-70.
See accompanying Dispatch in
Current Biology 22: R225-7 (2012).

Mapping the Hsp90 Genetic Interaction Network in Candida albicans Reveals Environmental Contingency and Rewired Circuitry. Diezmann, S., Michaut, M., Shapiro, R. S., Bader, G. D., and Cowen, L. E. 2012. PLoS Genetics 8(3): e1002562.

Cdc28 Provides a Molecular Link Between Hsp90, Cell Cycle Regulation, and Morphogenesis in the Pathogenic Fungus Candida albicans. Senn, H., Shapiro, R. S., and Cowen, L. E. 2012. Molecular Biology of the Cell 23(2): 268-83.

Uncovering Cellular Circuitry Controlling Temperature-dependent Fungal Morphogenesis. Shapiro, R. S. and Cowen, L. E. 2012. Virulence 3(4):400-4.

The Evolution of Drug Resistance in Fungi. In, Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes. Hill, J. A., Hoot, S. J., White, T. C., and Cowen, L. E. 2012. Editors L. David Sibley, Barbara J. Howlett, and Joseph Heitman. Wiley Blackwell. Somerset, NJ, USA. p. 143 – 167.


A Systems Biology Approach Reveals the Role of a Novel Methyltransferase in Response to Chemical Stress and Lipid Homeostasis. Lissina, E., Young, B., Urbanus, M. L., Guan, X. L., Lowenson, J., Hoon, S., Baryshnikova, A., Riezman, I., Michaut, M., Bader, G., Riezman, H., Cowen, L. E., Wenk, M. R., Clarke, S. G., Giaever, G., and Nislow, C. 2011. PLoS Genetics 7(10): e1002332.

Hsp90 Governs Dispersion and Drug Resistance of Fungal Biofilms. Robbins, N., Uppuluri, P., Nett, J., Rajendran, R., Ramage, G., Lopez-Ribot, J. L., Andes, D., and Cowen, L. E. 2011. PLoS Pathogens 7(9): e1002257.

Regulatory Circuitry Governing Fungal Development, Drug Resistance, and Disease. Shapiro, R. S., Robbins, N., and Cowen, L. E. 2011. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 75: 213-267.


PKC Signaling Regulates Drug Resistance of the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans via Circuitry Comprised of Mkc1, Calcineurin, and Hsp90. LaFayette, S. L., Collins, C., Zaas, A. K., Schell, W. A., Betancourt-Quiroz, M., Gunatilaka, A. A. L., Perfect, J. R., and Cowen, L. E. 2010. PLoS Pathogens 6(8): e1001069.

Metabolic Control of Antifungal Drug Resistance. Robbins, N., Collins, C., Morhayim, J., and Cowen, L. E. 2010. Fungal Genetics and Biology 47: 81-93.

Coupling Temperature Sensing and Development: Hsp90 Regulates Morphogenetic Signaling in Candida albicans. Shapiro, R. S. and Cowen, L. E. 2010. Virulence 1: 45-8.


Hsp90 Orchestrates Temperature-Dependent Candida albicans Morphogenesis Via Ras1-PKA Signaling. Shapiro, R. S., Uppuluri, P., Zaas, A. K., Collins, C., Senn, H., Perfect, J. R., Heitman, J., and Cowen, L. E. 2009. Current Biology 19: 621-9.
See accompanying Dispatch in Current Biology 19: R333-4 (2009).
See Highlight in
Nature Reviews Microbiology 7: 405 (2009).

Hsp90 Governs Echinocandin Resistance in the Pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans via Calcineurin. Singh, S. D., Robbins, N., Zaas, A. K., Schell, W. A., Perfect, J. R., and Cowen, L. E. 2009. PLoS Pathogens 5(7): e1000532.

Hsp90 Orchestrates Stress Response Signaling Governing Fungal Drug Resistance. Cowen, L. E. 2009. PLoS Pathogens 5(7): e1000471.

Rapid Acquisition of Aneuploidy Provides Increased Fitness During the Evolution of Antifungal Drug Resistance. Selmecki, A., Dulmage, K., Cowen, L. E., Anderson, J. B., and Berman J. 2009. PLoS Genetics. 5(10):e1000705.

Harnessing Hsp90 Function as a Powerful, Broadly Effective Therapeutic Strategy for Diverse Fungal Infectious Diseases. Cowen, L. E., Singh, S. D., Köhler, J. R., Collins, C., Zaas, A. K., Schell, W. A., Aziz, H., Mylonakis, E., Perfect, J. R., Whitesell, L., and Lindquist, S. 2009. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 2818-23.
See accompanying Commentary in
PNAS 106:2971-2 (2009).


The C. albicans Pescadillo Homolog is Required for Hypha-to-Yeast Morphogenesis and Yeast Proliferation. Shen, J., Cowen, L. E., Griffin, A., Chan, L., and Köhler, J. R. 2008. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 20918-23.

The Evolution of Fungal Drug Resistance: Modulating Trajectories of Genotype to Phenotype. Cowen, L. E. 2008. Nature Reviews Microbiology 6: 187-98.

Stress, Drugs, and Evolution: The Role of Cellular Signaling in Fungal Drug Resistance. Cowen, L. E. and Steinbach, W. J. 2008. Eukaryotic Cell 7: 747-64.


Genetic Architecture of Hsp90-Dependent Drug Resistance. Cowen, L. E., Carpenter, A. E., Matangkasombut, O., Fink, G. R., and Lindquist, S. 2006. Eukaryotic Cell 5: 2184-8.


Hsp90 Potentiates the Rapid Evolution of New Traits: Drug Resistance in Diverse Fungi. Cowen, L. E. and Lindquist, S. 2005. Science 309: 2185-89.
See accompanying Perspective in
Science 309: 2175-6 (2005).
See Highlight in
Nature Reviews Genetics 6: 801 (2005).
See Highlight in
Nature Reviews Microbiology 3: 908-909 (2005).
See Highlight in
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 4: 884 (2005).


Mode of Selection and Experimental Evolution of Antifungal Drug Resistance. Anderson, J. B., Sirjusingh, C., Parsons, A., Boone, C., Wickens, C., Cowen, L. E., and Kohn, L. M. 2003. Genetics 163: 1287-98.


Population Genomics of Drug Resistance in Candida albicans. Cowen, L. E., Nantel, A., Whiteway, M. S., Thomas, D. Y., Tessier, D. C., Kohn, L. M., and Anderson, J. B. 2002. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99: 9284-89.


Evolution of Drug Resistance in Candida albicans. Cowen, L. E., Anderson, J. B., and Kohn, L. M. 2002. Annual Review of Microbiology 56: 139-65.


Predicting the Emergence of Resistance to Antifungal Drugs. Cowen, L. E. 2001. FEMS Microbiology Letters 204: 1-7.

Divergence in Fitness and Evolution of Drug Resistance in Experimental Populations of Candida albicans. Cowen, L. E., Kohn, L. M., and Anderson, J. B. 2001. Journal of Bacteriology 183: 2971-78.

Multilocus Genotyping Indicates that the Ability to Invade the Bloodstream is Widespread among Candida albicans Isolates. Luu, L. N., Cowen, L. E., Sirjusingh, C., Kohn, L. M., and Anderson, J. B. 2001. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39: 1657-60.

Infrequent Genetic Exchange and Recombination in the Mitochondrial Genome of Candida albicans. Anderson, J. B., Wickens, C., Khan M., Cowen, L. E., Federspiel, N., Jones, T., and Kohn, L. M. 2001. Journal of Bacteriology 183: 865-72.


Evolution of Drug Resistance in Experimental Populations of Candida albicans. Cowen, L. E., Sanglard, D., Calabrese, D., Sirjusingh, C., Anderson, J. B., and Kohn, L. M. 2000. Journal of Bacteriology 182: 1515-22.


Multilocus Genotypes and DNA Fingerprints do not Predict Variation in Azole Resistance Among Clinical Isolates of Candida albicans. Cowen, L. E., Sirjusingh, C., Summerbell, R. C., Walmsley, S., Richardson, S., Kohn, L. M., and Anderson, J. B. 1999. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 43: 2930-38.