Ray Blanchard, Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry, University of Toronto

 

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Curriculum Vitae                             Other Material

 

Biography                                      Paraphilia Scales

Research Interests                          Phallometry Lecture

Refereed Articles                            Sex Reassignment Debate (pdf)

Non-Refereed Articles                      GID in Males (pdf)

Book Chapters                                GID in Females (pdf)

Edited Books                                  DSM Talk at SSTAR

Public Domain Images                     DSM Talk at WAS

Links                                             DSM Talk at ATSA

Contact Information                        Fertility of Hebephiles (pdf)

                                                    Alloeroticism Summary (pdf)

                                                    Alloeroticism (pdf)

                                                    Victim Count (pdf)

                                                    Dissenting Pedophilic Disorder

                                                   

 

Biography

 

Ray Blanchard (born October 9, 1945 in Hammonton, NJ) was Head of Clinical Sexology Services in the Law and Mental Health Program at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Toronto, Ontario from 1995 to 2010. He is currently an adjunct Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto. He holds dual citizenship in the United States and Canada.

 

He received his A.B. in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1967 and his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1973. He then took up a Killam Postdoctoral Fellowship awarded by Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he remained until 1976, investigating learning processes in animals.  In 1976 he accepted a position as a clinical psychologist at the Ontario Correctional Institute in Brampton, Ontario. While there, he made the acquaintance of the prominent sex researcher Kurt Freund, M.D., D.Sc., who introduced him to research on paraphilias, gender identity disorders, and sexual orientation.

 

Blanchard joined the Gender Identity Clinic at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry (now part of the CAMH) in 1980. Much of his research in the next 15 years concerned transsexualism and milder forms of gender identity disorders. In 1995, he was appointed Head of the newly created Clinical Sexology Services at the CAMH. This unit comprised the Gender Identity Clinic and the Kurt Freund Laboratory. This laboratory is the oldest in North America for the psychophysiological assessment of erotic interests in sexual offenders and other men with problematic sexual behavior. This type of assessment (variously called phallometric testing or penile plethysmography) is one of the few available procedures for diagnosing paraphilias in sexual offenders who verbally deny anomalous erotic interests. He retired from the CAMH in 2010.

 

In 2004, he served as President of the International Academy of Sex Research. He is currently a member of the Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Work Group for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. He was an Associate Editor of Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment from 2003–2010, and he has been a member of the Editorial Board of the Archives of Sexual Behavior since 1990. In 2010, he received a Significant Achievement Award from the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers.

 

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Research Interests

 

Blanchard’s main research interests are phallometric diagnosis, gender identity disorders, sexual orientation, and paraphilias. His studies on the clinical management of gender identity disorders have shown that the psychosocial adjustment of transsexuals improves before surgery, as patients move into the cross-gender role, and that it improves further after surgery. These results led him to argue, in 2000, that sex reassignment surgery should be covered by public health insurance plans. His work on the typology of transsexualism has suggested that there are two main types of male-to-female transsexualism, each preceded or accompanied by a different erotic preference: Homosexual transsexuals are erotically aroused by men, and autogynephilic transsexuals are erotically aroused by the thought or image of themselves as women. In 1987 and 1990, he published two of the earliest reports of female-to-male transsexuals who wished to undergo sex reassignment surgery in order to become gay men.

 

His research in the field of sexual orientation has shown that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This phenomenon has been called the fraternal birth order effect. He has advanced the hypothesis that the phenomenon reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male fetus, and the concomitantly increasing effects of anti-male antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male fetus. Blanchard’s research in collaboration with two former postdoctoral students, Anthony F. Bogaert and James M. Cantor, has shown that about 15–30% of gay men can attribute their sexual orientation to the effect of older brothers. The most recent studies on fraternal birth order have produced the unexpected result that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality only in right-handed males; they appear to have no effect, or perhaps the opposite effect, in non-right-handed males.

 

Blanchard’s work on paraphilias has shown that pedophiles have lower than expected mean IQ’s and higher rates of non-right-handedness. In collaboration with his CAMH colleague, James M. Cantor, he is pursuing the hypothesis that these and other correlates of pedophilia reflect some perturbation of prenatal neurodevelopment in subsequently pedophilic males. Blanchard’s other research on paraphilias has included studies of men with sexual interest in transvestites and transsexuals, studies of men who died accidentally as the result of masturbatory practices involving self-asphyxiation, and research on the correlation between transvestism and masochism.

 

His research on the phallometric diagnosis of pedophilia in child molesters who deny erotic interest in children (“nonadmitters”) has shown that this test has a sensitivity of about 60% when specificity is set to about 95%. Other work has shown that phallometric test results correlate with a range of diverse variables, including the volume of white matter pathways in the brain. In taxonomic research, Blanchard has used phallometric testing to demonstrate that men who say that they are most attracted to pubescent children differ from men who say they are most attracted to prepubescent children and from men who say they are most attracted to physically mature persons. A line of research in collaboration with another CAMH colleague, Howard E. Barbaree, has shown that penile response in the phallometric laboratory is an inverse function of chronological age.

 

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Publications

 

Refereed Articles

 

Blanchard (2014). Detecting and correcting for family size differences in the study of sexual orientation and fraternal birth order. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43, 845–852.

 

VanderLaan, D. P., Blanchard, R., Wood, H., & Zucker, K. J. (2014). Birth order and sibling sex ratio of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service. PLoS ONE, 9(3).

 

Blanchard, R. (2012). A possible second type of maternal–fetal immune interaction involved in both male and female homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 1507–1511.

 

Blanchard, R. (2012). Fertility in the mothers of firstborn homosexual and heterosexual men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 551–556.

 

Schagen, S. E. E., Delemarre-van de Waal, H. A., Blanchard, R., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2012). Sibling sex ratio and birth order in early-onset gender dysphoric adolescents. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 541–549.

 

Blanchard, R., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., Klassen, P. E., Dickey R., & Cantor, J. M. (2012). Sexual attraction to others: A comparison of two models of alloerotic responding in men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 13–29. For free PDF, click here: http://www.springerlink.com/content/l2v8761372637p15/

 

Zucker, K. J., Bradley, S. J., Owen-Anderson, A., Singh, D., & Blanchard, R. (2011). Puberty-blocking hormonal therapy for adolescents with gender identity disorder: A descriptive clinical study. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 15, 58–82.

 

Kolla, N. J., Blanchard, R., Klassen, P. E., Kuban, M. E., & Blak, T. (2010). Effect of sildenafil on penile plethysmography responding: A pilot investigation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 1449–1452.

 

Kolla, N. J., Klassen P. E., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., & Blanchard, R. (2010). Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sildenafil in phallometric testing. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 38, 502–511.

 

Lykins, A. D., Cantor, J. M., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., Dickey, R., Klassen, P. E., & Blanchard, R. (2010). Sexual arousal to female children in gynephilic men. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 22, 279–289.

 

Lykins, A. D., Cantor, J. M., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., Dickey, R., Klassen, P. E., & Blanchard, R. (2010). The relation between peak response magnitudes and agreement in diagnoses obtained from two different phallometric tests for pedophilia. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 22, 42–57.

 

Blanchard, R., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., Cantor, J. M., Klassen, P. E., & Dickey, R. (2009). Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 21, 431–441.

 

Barbaree, H. E., Langton, C. M., Blanchard, R., & Cantor, J. M. (2009). Aging versus stable enduring traits as explanatory constructs in sex offender recidivism: Partitioning actuarial prediction into conceptually meaningful components. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36, 443–465.

 

Blanchard, R., Lykins, A. D., Wherrett, D., Kuban, M. E., Cantor, J. M., Blak, T., Dickey, R., & Klassen, P. E. (2009). Pedophilia, hebephilia, and the DSM-V. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 335–350.

 

Blanchard, R. (2008). Sex ratio of older siblings in heterosexual and homosexual, right-handed and non-right-handed men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 977–981.

 

Blanchard, R., & Lippa, R. A. (2008). The sex ratio of older siblings in non-right-handed homosexual men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 970–976.

 

Barbaree, H. E., Langton, C. M., Blanchard, R., & Boer, D. P. (2008). Predicting recidivism in sex offenders using the SVR-20: The contribution of age-at-release. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 7, 47–64.

 

Cantor, J. M., Kabani, N., Christensen, B. K., Zipursky, R. B., Barbaree, H. E., Dickey, R., Klassen, P. E., Mikulis, D. J., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., Richards, B. A., Hanratty, M. K., & Blanchard, R. (2008). Cerebral white matter deficiencies in pedophilic men. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42, 167–183.

 

Blanchard, R. (2008). Review and theory of handedness, birth order, and homosexuality in men. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 13, 51–70.

 

Cantor, J. M., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., Klassen, P. E., Dickey, R. & Blanchard, R. (2007).  Physical height in pedophilic and hebephilic sexual offenders.  Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19, 395–407.

 

Chivers, M. L., Seto, M. C., & Blanchard, R. (2007). Gender and sexual orientation differences in sexual response to sexual activities versus gender of actors in sexual films. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 1108–1121.

 

Zucker, K. J., Blanchard, R., Kim, T.-S., Pae, C.-U., & Lee, C. (2007). Birth order and sibling sex ratio in homosexual transsexual South Korean males: Effects of the male-preference stopping rule. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 61, 529–533.

 

Bogaert, A. F., Blanchard, R., & Crosthwait, L. E. (2007). Interaction of birth order, handedness, and sexual orientation in the Kinsey interview data. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121, 845–853.

 

Blanchard, R., Kolla, N. J., Cantor, J. M., Klassen, P. E., Dickey, R., Kuban, M. E., & Blak, T. (2007). IQ, handedness, and pedophilia in adult male patients stratified by referral source. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19, 285–309.

 

Blanchard, R., & Lippa, R. A. (2007). Birth order, sibling sex ratio, handedness, and sexual orientation of male and female participants in a BBC Internet research project. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36 163–176.

 

Barbaree, H. E., Langton, C. M., & Blanchard, R. (2007). Predicting recidivism in sex offenders using the VRAG and SORAG: The contribution of age-at-release. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 6, 29–46.

 

Cantor, J. M., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., Klassen, P. E., Dickey, R., & Blanchard, R. (2006). Grade failure and special education placement in sexual offenders’ educational histories. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 743–751.

 

Blanchard, R., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., Cantor, J. M., Klassen, P., & Dickey, R. (2006). Phallometric comparison of pedophilic interest in nonadmitting sexual offenders against stepdaughters, biological daughters, other biologically related girls, and unrelated girls. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 18, 1–14.

 

Seto, M. C., Cantor, J. M., & Blanchard, R. (2006). Child pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 610–615.

 

Blanchard, R., Cantor, J. M., Bogaert, A. F., Breedlove, S. M., & Ellis, L. (2006). Interaction of fraternal birth order and handedness in the development of male homosexuality. Hormones and Behavior, 49, 405–414.

 

Blanchard, R., & Barbaree, H. E. (2005). The strength of sexual arousal as a function of the age of the sex offender: Comparisons among pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 441–456.

 

Cantor, J. M., Blanchard, R., Robichaud, L. K., & Christensen, B. K. (2005). Quantitative reanalysis of aggregate data on IQ in sexual offenders. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 555–568.

 

Cantor, J. M., Klassen, P. E., Dickey, R., Christensen, B. K., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., Williams, N. S., & Blanchard, R. (2005). Handedness in pedophilia and hebephilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34, 447–459.

 

Blanchard, R. (2005). Early history of the concept of autogynephilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34, 439–446.

 

Blanchard, R. (2004). Quantitative and theoretical analyses of the relation between older brothers and homosexuality in men. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 230, 173–187.

 

Blanchard, R., & Bogaert, A. F. (2004). Proportion of homosexual men who owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order: An estimate based on two national probability samples. American Journal of Human Biology, 16, 151–157.

 

Cantor, J. M., Blanchard, R., Christensen, B. K., Dickey, R., Klassen, P. E., Beckstead, A. L., Blak, T., & Kuban, M. E. (2004). Intelligence, memory, and handedness in pedophilia. Neuropsychology, 18, 3–14.

 

Poasa, K. H., Blanchard, R., & Zucker, K. J. (2004). Birth order in transgendered males from Polynesia: A quantitative study of Samoan fa’afāfine. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 30, 13–23.

 

Zucker, K. J., & Blanchard, R. (2003). Birth order in the fakafefine. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 29, 251–253.

 

Blanchard, R., Kuban, M. E., Klassen, P., Dickey, R., Christensen, B. K., Cantor, J. M., & Blak, T. (2003). Self-reported head injuries before and after age 13 in pedophilic and nonpedophilic men referred for clinical assessment. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 573–581.

 

Côté, K., Blanchard, R., & Lalumière, M. L. (2003). The influence of birth order on birth weight: Does the sex of preceding siblings matter? Journal of Biosocial Science, 35, 455–462.

 

Zucker, K. J., Blanchard, R., & Siegelman, M. (2003). Birth order among homosexual men. Psychological Reports, 92, 117–118.

 

Blanchard, R., Christensen, B. K., Strong, S. M., Cantor, J. M., Kuban, M. E., Klassen, P., Dickey, R., & Blak, T. (2002). Retrospective self-reports of childhood accidents causing unconsciousness in phallometrically diagnosed pedophiles. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 511–526.

 

Blanchard, R., Zucker, K. J., Cavacas, A., Allin, S., Bradley, S. J., & Schachter, D. C. (2002). Fraternal birth order and birth weight in probably prehomosexual feminine boys. Hormones and Behavior, 41, 321–327.

 

Cantor, J. M., Blanchard, R., Paterson, A. D., & Bogaert, A. F. (2002). How many gay men owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 63–71.

 

Blanchard, R. (2001). Fraternal birth order and the maternal immune hypothesis of male homosexuality. Hormones and Behavior, 40, 105–114.

 

Blanchard, R., Klassen, P., Dickey, R., Kuban, M. E., & Blak, T. (2001). Sensitivity and specificity of the phallometric test for pedophilia in nonadmitting sex offenders. Psychological Assessment, 13, 118–126.

 

Blanchard, R., & Ellis, L. (2001). Birth weight, sexual orientation and the sex of preceding siblings. Journal of Biosocial Science, 33, 451–467.

 

Ellis, L., & Blanchard, R. (2001). Birth order, sibling sex ratio, and maternal miscarriages in homosexual and heterosexual men and women. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 543–552.

 

Blanchard, R., Barbaree, H. E, Bogaert, A. F., Dickey, R., Klassen, P., Kuban, M. E., & Zucker, K. J. (2000). Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation in pedophiles. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 463–478.

 

Seto, M. C., Lalumière, M. L., & Blanchard, R. (2000). The discriminative validity of a phallometric test for pedophilic interests among adolescent sex offenders against children. Psychological Assessment, 12, 319–327.

 

Purcell, D. W., Blanchard, R., & Zucker, K. J. (2000). Birth order in a contemporary sample of gay men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 349–356.

 

Lalumière, M. L., Blanchard, R., & Zucker, K. J. (2000). Sexual orientation and handedness in men and women: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 575–592.

                                                                             

Kuban, M., Barbaree, H. E., & Blanchard, R. (1999). A comparison of volume and circumference phallometry: Response magnitude and method agreement. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 28, 345–359.

 

Blanchard, R., Watson, M. S., Choy, A., Dickey, R., Klassen, P., Kuban, M., & Ferren, D. J. (1999). Pedophiles: Mental retardation, maternal age, and sexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 28, 111–127.

 

Blanchard, R., & Bogaert, A. F. (1998). Birth order in homosexual versus heterosexual sex offenders against children, pubescents, and adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 27, 595–603.

 

Blanchard, R., Zucker, K. J., Siegelman, M., Dickey, R., & Klassen, P. (1998). The relation of birth order to sexual orientation in men and women. Journal of Biosocial Science, 30, 511–519.

 

Blanchard, R., & Dickey, R. (1998). Pubertal age in homosexual and heterosexual sexual offenders against children, pubescents, and adults. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 10, 273–282.

 

Jones, M. B., & Blanchard, R. (1998). Birth order and male homosexuality: Extension of Slater’s index. Human Biology, 70, 775–787.

 

Zucker, K. J., Lightbody, S., Pecore, K., Bradley, S. J., & Blanchard, R. (1998). Birth order in girls with gender identity disorder. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 7, 30–35.

 

Blanchard, R. (1997). Birth order and sibling sex ratio in homosexual versus heterosexual males and females. Annual Review of Sex Research, 8, 27–67.

 

Zucker, K. J., Green, R., Coates, S., Zuger, B., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Zecca, G. M., Lertora, V., Money, J., Hahn-Burke, S., Bradley, S. J. & Blanchard, R. (1997). Sibling sex ratio of boys with gender identity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 543–551.

 

Blanchard, R., & Klassen, P. (1997). H-Y antigen and homosexuality in men. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 185, 373–378.

 

Bogaert, A. F., Bezeau, S., Kuban, M., & Blanchard, R. (1997). Pedophilia, sexual orientation, and birth order. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 331–335.

 

Blanchard, R., & Bogaert, A. F. (1997). Additive effects of older brothers and homosexual brothers in the prediction of marriage and cohabitation. Behavior Genetics, 27, 45–54.

 

Blanchard, R., & Bogaert, A. F. (1997). The relation of closed birth intervals to the sex of the preceding child and the sexual orientation of the succeeding child. Journal of Biosocial Science, 29, 111–118.

 

Blanchard, R., & Bogaert, A. F. (1996). Biodemographic comparisons of homosexual and heterosexual men in the Kinsey interview data. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 551–579.

 

Bogaert, A. F., & Blanchard, R. (1996). Physical development and sexual orientation in men: Height, weight, and age of puberty differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 77–84.

 

Blanchard, R., Zucker, K. J., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Gooren, L. J. G., & Bailey, J. M. (1996). Birth order and sibling sex ratio in two samples of Dutch gender-dysphoric homosexual males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 495–514.

 

Bogaert, A. F., & Blanchard, R. (1996). Handedness in homosexual and heterosexual men in the Kinsey interview data. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 373–378.

 

Chivers, M., & Blanchard, R. (1996). Prostitution advertisements suggest association of transvestism and masochism. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 22, 97–102.

 

Blanchard, R., & Bogaert, A. F. (1996). Homosexuality in men and number of older brothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 27–31.

 

Blanchard, R., Dickey, R., & Jones, C. L. (1995). Comparison of height and weight in homosexual versus nonhomosexual male gender dysphorics. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 24, 543–554.

 

Blanchard, R., Zucker, K. J., Bradley, S. J., & Hume, C. S. (1995). Birth order and sibling sex ratio in homosexual male adolescents and probably prehomosexual feminine boys. Developmental Psychology, 31, 22–30.

 

Zucker, K.J., & Blanchard, R. (1994). Re-analysis of Bieber et al.’s 1962 data on sibling sex ratio and birth order in male homosexuals. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 528–530.

 

Blanchard, R., & Zucker, K. J. (1994). Reanalysis of Bell, Weinberg, and Hammersmith’s data on birth order, sibling sex ratio, and parental age in homosexual men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1375–1376.

 

Blanchard, R. (1994). A structural equation model for age at clinical presentation in nonhomosexual male gender dysphorics. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 23, 311–320.

 

Blanchard, R. (1993). Partial versus complete autogynephilia and gender dysphoria. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 19, 301–307.

 

Blanchard, R., & Collins, P. I. (1993). Men with sexual interest in transvestites, transsexuals, and she-males. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181, 570–575.

 

Blanchard, R. (1993). Varieties of autogynephilia and their relationship to gender dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22, 241–251.

 

Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1993). Erotic target location errors in male gender dysphorics, paedophiles, and fetishists. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 558–563.

 

Blanchard, R. (1993). The she-male phenomenon and the concept of partial autogynephilia. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 19, 69–76.

 

Hucker, S. J., & Blanchard, R. (1992). Death scene characteristics in 118 fatal cases of autoerotic asphyxia compared with suicidal asphyxia. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 509–523.

 

Blanchard, R. (1992). Nonmonotonic relation of autogynephilia and heterosexual attraction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 271–276.

 

Blanchard, R., & Sheridan, P. M. (1992). Proportion of unmarried siblings of homosexual and non homosexual gender-dysphoric patients. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 163–167.

 

Blanchard, R., & Sheridan, P. M. (1992). Sibship size, sibling sex ratio, birth order, and parental age in homosexual and nonhomosexual gender dysphorics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 40–47.

 

Blanchard, R. (1991). Clinical observations and systematic studies of autogynephilia. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 17, 235–251.

 

Stermac, L., Blanchard, R., Clemmensen, L. H., & Dickey, R. (1991). Group therapy for gender-dysphoric heterosexual men. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 17, 252–258.

 

Blanchard, R., & Hucker, S. J. (1991). Age, transvestism, bondage, and concurrent paraphilic activities in 117 fatal cases of autoerotic asphyxia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 371–377.

 

Bradley, S. J., Blanchard, R., Coates, S., Green, R., Levine, S., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Pauly, I., & Zucker, K. J. (1991). Interim report of the DSM-IV subcommittee for gender identity disorders. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20, 333–343.

 

Blanchard, R. (1989). The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 616–623.

 

Blanchard, R. (1989). The classification and labeling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18, 315–334.

 

Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1989). Phallometric diagnosis of pedophilia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 100–105.

 

Blanchard, R., Steiner, B. W., Clemmensen, L. H., & Dickey, R. (1989). Prediction of regrets in postoperative transsexuals. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 43–45.

 

Blanchard, R., & Clemmensen, L. H. (1988). A test of the DSM-III-R’s implicit assumption that fetishistic arousal and gender dysphoria are mutually exclusive. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 426–432.

 

Blanchard, R. (1988). Nonhomosexual gender dysphoria. Journal of Sex Research, 24, 188–193.

 

Blanchard, R., Legault, S., & Lindsay, W. R. N. (1987). Vaginoplasty outcome in male-to-female transsexuals. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 13, 265–275.

 

Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1987). Feminine gender identity and physical aggressiveness in heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 13, 25–34.

 

Blanchard, R., Clemmensen, L. H., & Steiner, B. W. (1987). Heterosexual and homosexual gender dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, 139–152.

 

Blanchard, R., Racansky, I. G., & Steiner, B. W. (1986). Phallometric detection of fetishistic arousal in heterosexual male cross-dressers. Journal of Sex Research, 22, 452–462.

 

Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1986). The concept of courtship disorder. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 12, 79–92.

 

Blanchard, R., Clemmensen, L. H., & Steiner, B. W. (1985). Social desirability response set and systematic distortion in the self-report of adult male gender patients. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 505–516.

 

Blanchard, R., Steiner, B. W., & Clemmensen, L. H. (1985). Gender dysphoria, gender reorientation, and the clinical management of transsexualism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 295–304.

 

Blanchard, R. (1985). Typology of male-to-female transsexualism. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 247–261.

 

Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1983). Is the distant relationship of fathers and homosexual sons related to the sons’ erotic preference for male partners, or to the sons’ atypical gender identity, or to both? Journal of Homosexuality, 9, 7–25.

 

Blanchard, R., Clemmensen, L. H., & Steiner, B. W. (1983). Gender reorientation and psychosocial adjustment in male-to-female transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 503–509.

 

Blanchard, R., McConkey, J. G., Roper, V., & Steiner, B. W. (1983). Measuring physical aggressiveness in heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 511–524.

 

Blanchard, R., & Freund, K. (1983). Measuring masculine gender identity in females. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 205–214.

 

Blanchard, R., & Steiner, B. W. (1983). Gender reorientation, psychological adjustment, and involvement with female partners in female-to-male transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 149–157.

 

Blanchard, R. (1977). Control of observing by antecedent stimuli. Learning and Motivation, 8, 569–580.

 

Blanchard, R., & Honig, W. K. (1976). Surprise value of food determines its effectiveness as a reinforcer. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 67–74.

 

Blanchard, R. (1975). The effect of S on observing behavior. Learning and Motivation, 6, 1–10.

 

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Non-Refereed Articles

 

Blanchard, R. (2013). Foreword. In A. A. Lawrence, Men trapped in men’s bodies: Narratives of autogynephilic transsexualism (pp. v–vi). New York: Springer.

 

Blanchard, R. (2013). A dissenting opinion on DSM-5 pedophilic disorder [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42, 675–678.

 

Hames, R., & Blanchard, R. (2012). Anthropological data regarding the adaptiveness of hebephilia [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 745–747.

 

Cantor, J. M., & Blanchard, R. (2012). White matter volumes in pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles [Letter to the Editor]Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 749–752.

 

Rieger, G., Blanchard, R., Schwartz, G., Bailey, J. M., & Sanders, A. R. (2012). Further data concerning Blanchard’s (2011) ‘‘Fertility in the mothers of firstborn homosexual and heterosexual men’’ [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 529–531.

 

Blanchard, R. (2012). Letter to the Editor. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 40, 157–158.

 

Blanchard, R. (2011). Misdiagnoses of pedohebephilia using victim count: A reply to Wollert and Cramer (2011) [Letter to the Editor]Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40, 1081–1088.

 

Blanchard, R. (2011). A brief history of field trials of the DSM diagnostic criteria for paraphilias [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40, 861–862.

 

Blanchard, R. (2010). The specificity of victim count as a diagnostic indicator of pedohebephilia [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 1245–1252.

 

Jannini, E. A., Blanchard, R., Camperio-Ciani, A., & Bancroft, J. (2010). Male homosexuality: Nature or culture? Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7, 3245–3253.

 

Blanchard, R. (2010). Penile plethysmography, sexual orientation, and stimulus generalization. ATSA Forum, 22. http://newsmanager.commpartners.com/atsa/issues/2010-06-23/4.html

 

Blanchard, R. (2010). The fertility of hebephiles and the adaptationist argument against including hebephilia in DSM-5 [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 817–818.

 

Blanchard, R. (2010). The DSM diagnostic criteria for Pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 304–316.

 

Blanchard, R. (2010). The DSM diagnostic criteria for Transvestic Fetishism. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 363–372.

 

Blanchard, R. (2009). Reply to letters regarding Pedophilia, Hebephilia, and the DSM-V. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 331–334.

 

Blanchard, R. (2008). Deconstructing the feminine essence narrative. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 434–438.

 

Blanchard, R. (2007). Older-sibling and younger-sibling sex ratios in Frisch and Hviid’s (2006) national cohort study of two million Danes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 860–863.

 

Blanchard, R. (2007). Supplementary analyses regarding Langevin, Langevin, and Curnoe’s (2007) findings on fraternal birth order in homosexual men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 610–614.

 

Blanchard, R. (2003). Film review of Normal. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 7, 97–99.

 

Blanchard, R. (2000). Fraternal birth order, maternal immune reactions, and homosexuality in men. Politics and the Life Sciences, 19, 157–159.

 

Blanchard, R. (2000). Part II: The case for publicly funded transsexual surgery. Psychiatry Rounds, 4, 4–6.

 

Zucker, K. J., & Blanchard, R. (1998). Reply to James’s “The sex ratios of the sibs of children with psychiatric diagnoses.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 597.

 

Blanchard, R., & Bogaert, A. F. (1997). Drs. Blanchard and Bogaert reply [Letter to the editor]. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 137.

 

Blanchard, R. (1995). [Review of The sexual brain]. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183, 56.

 

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Book Chapters

 

Blanchard, R. (2013). Foreword. In A. A. Lawrence, Men trapped in men’s bodies: Narratives of autogynephilic transsexualism (pp. v–vi). New York: Springer.

 

Cantor, J. M., Blanchard, R., & Barbaree, H. E. (2009). Sexual disorders. In P. H. Blaney & T. Millon (Eds.), Oxford textbook of psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 527–548). New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Barbaree, H. E., & Blanchard, R. (2008). Sexual deviance over the lifespan: Reductions in deviant sexual behavior in the aging sex offender. In D. R. Laws & W. T. O’Donohue (Eds.), Sexual deviance: Theory, assessment, and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 37–60). New York: Guilford.

 

Blanchard, R., Cantor, J. M., & Robichaud, L. K. (2006). Biological factors in the development of sexual deviance and aggression in males. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 77–104). New York: Guilford.

 

Barbaree, H. E., Blanchard, R., & Langton, C. M. (2003). The development of sexual aggression through the life span: The effect of age on sexual arousal and recidivism among sex offenders. In R. A. Prentky, E. S. Janus, & M. C. Seto (Eds.), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Vol. 989. Sexually coercive behavior: Understanding and management (pp. 59–71).  New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

 

Blanchard, R. (2000). Transvestism. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychology (Vol. 8) (pp. 118–119). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press, USA.

 

Blanchard, R. (2000). Transsexualism. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychology (Vol. 8) (pp. 116–118). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press, USA.

 

Green, R., & Blanchard, R. (2000). Gender identity disorders of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In B. J. Sadock & V. A. Sadock (Eds.), Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (7th ed.) (pp. 1646–1662). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

 

Blanchard, R. (1998). Masculine Gender Identity Scale for females. In C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, R. Bauserman, G. Schreer, & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Sexuality-Related Measures (pp. 283–286). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

 

Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1998). Gender identity and erotic preference in males. In C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, R. Bauserman, G. Schreer, & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Sexuality-Related Measures (pp. 454–462). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

 

Blanchard, R. (1998). Cross-Gender Fetishism Scale. In C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, R. Bauserman, G. Schreer, & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Sexuality-Related Measures (pp. 581–582). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

 

Zucker, K. J., & Blanchard, R. (1997). Transvestic fetishism: Psychopathology and theory. In D. R. Laws & W. O’Donohue (Eds.), Sexual deviance: Theory, assessment, and treatment (pp. 253–279). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Bradley, S. J., Blanchard, R., Coates, S., Green, R., Levine, S. B., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Pauly, I. B., & Zucker, K. J. (1997). Gender identity disorder. In T. A. Widiger, A. J. Frances, H. A. Pincus, R. Ross, M. B. First, & W. Davis (Eds.), DSM-IV Sourcebook (Vol. 3) (pp. 317–325). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

 

Green, R., & Blanchard, R. (1995). Gender identity disorders of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In H. I. Kaplan & B. J. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (6th ed.) (pp. 1347–1360). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.

 

Blanchard, R. (1990). Preface. In R. Blanchard & B. W. Steiner (Eds.), Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults (pp. xiii–xv). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

 

Blanchard, R. (1990). Gender identity disorders in adult men. In R. Blanchard & B. W. Steiner (Eds.), Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults (pp. 47–76). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

 

Blanchard, R. (1990). Gender identity disorders in adult women. In R. Blanchard & B. W. Steiner (Eds.), Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults (pp. 77–91). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

 

Blanchard, R., & Sheridan, P. M. (1990). Gender reorientation and psychosocial adjustment. In R. Blanchard & B. W. Steiner (Eds.), Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults (pp. 159–189). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

 

Blanchard, R., Steiner, B. W., Clemmensen, L. H., & Dickey, R. (1988). Erotic preference and the prediction of regrets in postoperative transsexuals. In W. Eicher & G. Kockott (Eds.), Sexology (pp. 197–198). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

 

Blanchard, R. (1988). Masculine Gender Identity Scale for Females. In C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Sexuality-related measures: A compendium (pp. 140–143). Lake Mills, IA: Graphic Publishing Co.

 

Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1988). Gender identity and erotic preference in males. In C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Sexuality-related measures: A compendium (pp. 143–151). Lake Mills, IA: Graphic Publishing Co.

 

Blanchard, R. (1988). Cross-Gender Fetishism Scale. In C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Sexuality-related measures: A compendium (pp. 268–270). Lake Mills, IA: Graphic Publishing Co.

 

Steiner, B. W., Blanchard, R., & Zucker, K. J. (1985). Introduction. In B. W. Steiner (Ed.), Gender dysphoria: Development, research, management (pp. 1–10). New York: Plenum Press.

 

Blanchard, R. (1985). Research methods for the typological study of gender disorders in males. In B. W. Steiner (Ed.), Gender dysphoria: Development, research, management (pp. 227–257). New York: Plenum Press.

 

Blanchard, R. (1985). Gender dysphoria and gender reorientation. In B. W. Steiner (Ed.), Gender dysphoria: Development, research, management (pp. 365–392). New York: Plenum Press.

 

Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1981). Assessment of sexual dysfunction and deviation. In M. Hersen & A. S. Bellack (Eds.), Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook (2nd ed.) (pp. 427–455). New York: Pergamon Press.

 

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Edited Books

 

Blanchard, R., & Steiner, B. W. (Eds.). (1990). Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

 

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Public Domain Images

 

The following photographs were taken by Maxine Petersen, M.A., on August 7, 2008 at the College Street site of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. They may be downloaded and reproduced for any lawful purpose without special permission. Click on a thumbnail for the full-size image.

 

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Links

 

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

James M. Cantor, Ph.D.

Michael C. Seto, Ph.D.

Wikipedia Entry

Alice Dreger Gay Men & Children

Alice Dreger Gay Men & Children

Alice Dreger & Hebephilia

Alice Dreger & Hebephilia

Hebephilia & DSM-5

WedMD Pedophilia

Changes to DSM-5

My SoundCloud Page

My Facebook Profile

My ResearchGate Profile

Kurt Freund Biography

 

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Contact Information:

 

E-mail: ray.blanchard.phd@gmail.com

 

 

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Last Update: September 28, 2014