:. Home

:. Introduction

:. History

:. Producing paper today

:. Latest Technologies

:. Recycling Paper

:. The full paper making process

:. FAQs

:. Glossary

:. References

:. Fun-Crossword



This is where the cellulose fibers pass through a refining process which is vital in the art of papermaking. Before refining, the fibers are stiff, inflexible and form few bonds. The stock is pumped through a conicle machine which consists of a series of revolving discs. The violent abrasive and bruising action has the effect of cutting, opening up and declustering the fibers and making the ends divide. This is called fibrillation. In this state, the fibers are pliable and have greater surface area, which significantly improves the fiber bonding. The properties of the paper are directly related to the refining process. Refining used to be called beating.


© 2003 design by Ahmed Abdel-Rahman